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garan haichi@‰¾—•”z’u
KEY WORD :@architecture / general terms
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The arrangement of buildings within the precinct of a Buddhist temple constructed between the late 7c to 12c. The position of buildings and the buildings themselves varied according to era, religious sect and the surface configuration of the land. The earliest temples were established in Nara. Excavations of the Asukadera ”ò’¹Ž› site and the Wakakusa Žá‘ site adjacent to present Houryuuji revealed two of the earliest arrangements of temple buildings. The Asukadera style asukadera shiki ”ò’¹Ž›Ž®, had three image halls *kondou ‹à“°, one in the west *saikondou ¼‹à“°, one in the east *toukondou “Œ‹à“°, and a third, the central chuukondou ’†‹à“°, larger than the other two, was placed on the same axis as the south gate nanmon “ì–å, and middle gate *chuumon ’†–å. The pagoda *tou “ƒ, was placed forward from the chuukondou on the same axis, and situated exactly in the middle of the east and west pagodas. The three kondou and pagoda were surrounded by a corridor *kairou ‰ñ˜L. The only access was through what were thought to be a belfry *shourou à˜O, and a sutra storage area *kyouzou Œo‘ , that were outside the corridor. The Shitennouji Žl“V‰¤Ž› style is exemplified by the latest rebuilding of the temple, Shitennouji in Osaka. It has one pagoda that is placed on the same axis as the south and middle gates. Beyond the pagoda and on the same axis are the image hall and lecture hall. The latter is set within the rear corridor. Outside the sacred enclosure are a belfry and sutra storage buildings and far to the rear, are the dormitories and refectory *jikidou H“°. The excavation of the Houryuuji Wakakusa garan –@—²Ž›Žá‘‰¾—•, proved to have the same configuration as Shitennouji. The Houryuuji style has one pagoda on the left and image hall on the right. Originally, the corridor beginning on each side of the center gate completely enclosed them. The lecture hall, belfry, and sutra repository were at the back outside the corridor. Dormitories were on either side. At a later date, the corridor was extended to include the lecture hall, the belfry and sutra repository. The Kawaharadera ìŒ´Ž› site revealed that there was a west image hall with a pagoda facing it from the east, and a central image hall connected with another enclosure containing the belfry, sutra repository and lecture hall. Kanzeonji ŠÏ¢‰¹Ž› had the same plan as Yakushiji –òŽtŽ› in Nara, a plan that was typical in the 8c. A corridor extending from each side of the middle gate terminated at each side of the lecture hall. There was one image hall and two pagodas, east and west. In line with the gates, hondou and kairou was the refectory jikidou. The Koufukuji ‹»•ŸŽ› style follows a north-south axis plan. A corridor provides a protected passage from the middle gate to the image hall. The lecture hall, although on the same axis, is outside the enclosure. There are two image halls separated from the main axis. A refectory is located to the east, and Hokuendou –k‰~“° (north octagonal hall) in its own enclosed compound on the west side. At Toudaiji “Œ‘厛, the pagodas are arranged outside the main complex to the east and west, and are enclosed in corridors. During the Heian period with the introduction of new Buddhist sects (Tendai “V‘ä and Shingon ^Œ¾ sects), temples were often built in mountainous areas resulting in an asymmetrical arrangement of buildings. Also because these sects are basically esoteric, new buildings for different purposes such as the *jougyoudou ís“°, *tahoutou ‘½•ó“ƒ, and kanjoudou Ÿó’¸“° were also built. Examples: Enryakuji ‰„—, Jougyoudou and Hokkedou –@‰Ø“° (1594), Shiga prefecture.; Negoroji ª—ˆŽ›Tahoutou ‘½•ó“ƒ (*Daitou ‘哃). Also during the Heian period two other sects of Buddhism, the Pure Land sects (Joudo ò“y and Joudoshin ò“y^ sects) arose, and both had a special devotion to *Amida ˆ¢–í‘É (Sk. Amitabha) who rules over the Western Paradise saihou ¼•û. During the 10-11c when the power of the Fujiwara “¡Œ´ clan was at its peak many large Pure Land temples were built under its aegis. Every effort went into making these temples replicas of the the Amida's Western Paradise. Fujiwara Michinaga “¡Œ´“¹’· (966-1027) created a grand, palacial temple, Houjouij –@¬Ž›, in Kyoto. It is no longer extant but the assumed plan of the temple has been drawn by Fukuyama Toshio •ŸŽR•q’j. The focal point was the *amidadou ˆ¢–í‘É“° and faced a pond giving the temple a close relationship to the shinden style *shinden-zukuri Q“a‘¢. The Byoudouin •½“™‰@ *Hououdou –P™€“° is a mid-11c example. Temples with multiple Amida statues were popular, some housing as many as nine statues. The only example extant image hall is the Hondou –{“° at Joururiji ò—Ú—žŽ› (1107) in Kyoto. (Also called Kutaiji ‹ã‘ÌŽ›, lit. the Temple of Nine Images). It faces a pond and on the opposite side is a 3-storied pagoda, Sanjuu-no-tou ŽOd“ƒ (12c). New sects of Buddhism introduced in the 13c., especially, the Zen sect, used a different plan in the arrangement of buildings and added new buildings needed for their particular religious worship. The large temples were again built on level ground on a north-south axis influenced by the Chinese seven hall arrangement shinchidou garan Žµ“°‰¾—•. The seven buildings included: the Buddha hall *butsudou •§“°, hall for meditation *hattou –@“°, kitchen *soudou ‘m“°, kubou ŒÉ–[ or *kuri ŒÉ—¡, entrance gate *sanmon ŽO–å, sometimes interpreted as a spiritual entrance as well as physical entrance (see *sangedatsumon ŽO‰ð’E–å), latrine seijou ¼ò and bath house yokushitsu —Žº. These seven were the basic buildings but large Zen temples often added many traditional buildings such as a pagoda, tou, belfry, shourou, drum tower *korou ŒÛ˜O, the head preists quarters, *houjou •ûä, and dormitories, shindou Q“°. After the Ounin ‰žm War (1467-77) in Kyoto, during which many buildings were burned down, many Rinzai —ÕÏ sect temples like Kenchouji Œš’·Ž› preserved only the arrangement of the sanmon, Buddha hall and hattou on a north-south axis. The Soutou ‘‚“´ sect emphasized strict training and retained the plan of a kitchen, meditation hall and priests' quarters on an east-west axis. The Oubaku ‰©Ÿ@ sect style as seen at Manpukuji äݕŸŽ›, a third type of Zen, was introduced in the 17c. and reflected the Ming dynasty temple arrangement, with a tennouden “V‰¤“a placed between the sanmon and the butsudou. The saidou Ö“° and zendou ‘T“° were constructed on an east-west axis.
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Kenchouji Œš’·Ž› (Kanagawa)
a) *houjou •ûä b) *kuri ŒÉ—¡
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c) *hattou –@“° d) *butsuden •§“a
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e) *sanmon ŽO–å f) *shourou à˜O
   
 
g) *soumon ‘–å  
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