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houjou@•ûä
KEY WORD :@architecture / buildings & structures
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The name given to the type of residence that had evolved by the end of the 14c for the abbot, i.e., the head priest of a Zen temple. Characteristics of the Japanese residential style *shinden-zukuri Q“a‘¢, developed during the Heian period and of *shoin-zukuri ‘‰@‘¢, developed from the residences of the warrior class *buke-zukuri •‰Æ‘¢ from the 14-16c, were incorporated into the dwelling. The plan of the houjou evolved from the rectangular *menzou –°‘ , living quarters for the superior of a subsidiary temple *tatchuu “ƒ“ª, used for sleeping, resting, reading etc. During the early 15c this rectangular area was divided into six rooms, arranged in two rows, three rooms across the front and the back on an east-west axis. A wide veranda *hiro-en L‰, and often a lower veranda *ochi-en —Ž‰, were built across the front. Regular verandas run along each side. The entrance *genkan ŒºŠÖ, has a hard packed earthen floor *doma “yŠÔ, and is located at the right end of the front verandas. The main central room on the front row is called shitchuu Žº’† (also called naka-no-ma ’†‚ÌŠÔ); on either side of this were narrow rooms, on the left the gentleman's or guest room, dan-no-ma ’h‚ÌŠÔ, on right the patron's room, rei-no-ma —ç‚ÌŠÔ. Behind the front row, the center rooms are for the priests' raiment, begging bowls and dressing, ehatsu ˆß”«, and the one to the right is the *shoin ‘‰@, with an alcove *tokonoma °‚ÌŠÔ, shelves *tana ’I, and a desk, tsukeshoin •t‘‰@. In a very large Zen temple, there is usually a need for two high priests' buildings. One is called daihoujou ‘å•ûä (also sotohoujou ŠO•ûä or maehoujou ‘O•ûä) and the other is the kohoujou ¬•ûä (also uchihoujou “à•ûä). The main central room and the room for the Buddhist altar have plank flooring. The remaining rooms have straw mats *tatami ô. Rooms are divided with opaque sliding screens *fusuma ‰¦, many beautifully decorated with paintings. The main entrance has double leaf folding doors called moroori sankarado —¼ÜŽV“‚ŒË. Elsewhere, aside from paper sliding doors, are plank doors with rows of horizontal crosspieces attached at regular intervals *mairado •‘—ÇŒË. Examples: Myoushinji Daihoujou –­SŽ›‘å•ûä (1654), 29.5m~21.7m, and Kohoujou ¬•ûä (1613), 15.9m~10.0m.
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Toufukuji Houjou@“Œ•ŸŽ›•ûä (Kyoto)
Myoushinji Daihoujou –­SŽ›‘å•ûä (Kyoto)

Toufukuji Houjou@“Œ•ŸŽ›•ûä (Kyoto)
Toufukuji Houjou@“Œ•ŸŽ›•ûä (Kyoto)
Toufukuji Houjou@“Œ•ŸŽ›•ûä (Kyoto)



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