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shinden-zukuri@Q“a‘¢
CATEGORY:@architecture / general terms
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Also written Q“a‘¢‚è. A style of aristocratic mansions completed in the mid-10c in the capital, Kyoto, Heiankyou •½ˆÀ‹ž. One of the main characteristics of the shinden style is to arrange a group of buildings symmetrically. Usually a mansion is erected on a plot of ground of about 120 meters square (one chou square : see *machi ’¬). The shinden or main building is on the central axis running north-south. Two subsidiary buildings tai ‘Î were built to the right and left of the shinden. The shinden, which has an east-west ridge, and the tai which have north-south ridges, are connected by the sukiwatadono “§“n“a, a 1-bay open corridor and the the watadono “n“a, corridor 2-bays wide. Corridors closed on the outer side and open on the inner, run to the south from the corner of each tai, and have a central gate at the halfway point. Therefore, the shinden, two tai, sukiwatadono and chuumonrou ’†–å˜L create a south courtyard where many kinds of ceremonies took place. On the south side of the courtyard there was a large pond which had islets and bridges. The water for the pond was brought from the north by a stream *yarimizu Œ­… to the east of shinden using the high ground to the north of Heiankyou. The boundaries were enclosed by mud walls, *tsuiji ’z’n. There were main gates on the east and west sides but not on the south. The second main characteristic of shinden-zukuri is the undeveloped space between the buildings. The composition of the shinden and tai suggest a concentric circle which consists of a central core, *moya •ê‰®, surrounded by aisles, *hisashi ›ù, and auter aisles, *magobisashi ‘·›ù. The outer sides of the hisashi and magohisashi have no walls but are enclosed by wooden shutters, *shitomido ŽÁŒË or hinged plank doors, *tsumado ÈŒË. Since these shutters or doors must be opened in the daytime, the interior and exterior of the building become one space. Only the sleeping room *nurigome “h˜U is enclosed by walls and doors. It was used as a bedroom or a storeroom for valuables. Various accessories were employed in shinden-zukuri buildings. These can be divided into three kinds: partitions such as *byoubu › •—, *sudare —ú, *tsuitate shouji Õ—§áŽqand *kabeshiro •Ç‘ã ; mats, including *tatami ô and *enza ‰~À; and boxes and tables for storing personal belongings. The use of these items was governed by fixed rules known as shitsurai Žº—ç. Their flexibility ment that spaces could easily be adapted for ceremonies and parties, which were an important part of aristocratic life in the late Heian period.
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