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tokonoma@°‚ΜŠΤ
CATEGORY:@architecture / tea houses
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Lit. alcove room. A *tatami τ mat room with a small alcove. There are various theories about the origin of the alcove. It may have been a sleeping alcove, built just large enough for bedding. Later the alcove floor was raised above the level of the floor. The alcove was then enlarged to the size of two mats, and then it contracted again to one raised mat. The alcove thus became the honored seat for a guest of high rank. The other mat was placed at floor level. On occasion, a cozy alcove was formed by screens surrounding this type of arrangement. In the Kamakura period, to the latter part of the Muromachi period, the alcove had a raised floor and could be used as a seat or a platform. By the end of the Kamakura period, a Buddhist picture was hung on the wall and was the focal point of the tokonoma. A board to display objects *oshi-ita ‰Ÿ”Β, was set before the wall hanging, on which were exhibited a vase of flowers, an incense burner and a candlestick. These three things are important to Buddhism and are referred to as the three implements, mitsugusoku ŽO‹ο‘«. In the Muromachi period, it became customary to hang a scroll with a Zen priest's calligraphic inscription, along with the vase of flowers and the incense burner. The candlestick was omitted then. By the Momoyama period, the alcove took on its familiar form and was used principally for displaying treasured art objects.
The size and arrangement of the alcove varied according to the diversified tastes of the tea masters. An old record, for instance, mentions an alcove 180cm long attached to a tea ceremony room *chashitsu ’ƒŽΊ used by Murata Jukou ‘Ί“cŽμŒυ (1423-1502). This alcove was pasted with white Japanese paper called *torinokogami ’Ή‚ΜŽqŽ† and had frames that were covered with black laquer. Takeno Jouou •–μΠ‰¨ (1502-55) preferred a smaller alcove and tea ceremony room. Sen Rikyuu η—˜‹x (1522-91) used alcoves with styles familiar today. Characteristics from both the *shoin ‘‰@ style alcoves and the styles of alcoves found in tea architecture were fused to produce the alcove common to ordinary dwellings. Tokonoma are called a great variety of names such as kamizadokoγΐ° (lit. upper seat alcove), and shimozadoko‰Ίΐ° (lit. lower seat alcove). Sometimes tokonoma are named after the tea master who designed them, for example *oribedoko D•”°, or for the particular width of the alcove, such as *daimedoko ‘δ–ڏ°. See *hondoko –{°, plain wooden alcove *itadoko ”°, a tatami mat alcove *tatamidoko τ°, *fumikomidoko “₯ž°, *murodoko ŽΊ°, *horadoko “΄°, *fukurodoko ‘܏°, *kabedoko •Η°, *okidoko ’u°, *tsukedoko •t°, *tsuridoko ’ޏ°, *masudoko –‘°, *kasumidoko ‰ΰ°, *ensoudoko ‰~‘‹°, *gensoudoko Œ΄™Υ°, *nurimawashidoko “h‰ρ°.
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NOTES
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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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