jikidou 食堂
KEY WORD : architecture / buildings & structures
Also called saidou 斎堂. A refectory. An independent building on temple grounds where priests and monks had their meals. Only a few are extant today. Compared to the main halls for housing images and worshipers, jikidou are quite utilitarian and simple. The structures vary in size from period to period: Houdouji 宝塔寺 Jikidou (Kamakura period, Kyoto) is 7 x 3 bays (14.89 x 5.45m) ; Kongouji 金剛寺 Jikidou (Muromachi period, Osaka) 16.98×7.28m ; and Houryuuji 法隆寺 Jikidou (Nara period, Nara), is 7×4 bays (20.71×9.44m) with the entrance on the gable end. Onjouji 園城寺 Jikidou (1573-1591, Shiga prefecture), is 15 x 4 bays, (38.69 x 10.22m), with a complete second story. Enkyouji 円教寺, in Hyougo prefecture has a Jikidou with a high railing around the second floor. Most of these buildings have hip-and-gable roofs, covered with tile *hongawarabuki 本瓦葺, although the Jikidou at Houryuuji has a gable roof *kirizuma-zukuri 切妻造. Only the Jikidou at Onjouji is roofed with cypress bark *hiwadabuki 桧皮葺. Onjouji Jikidou has a veranda at the front and on both sides. Over the entrance there is an undulating gable *karahafu 唐破風. Together these features give the building the flavor of a residence. All have closely set rafters *shigedaruki 繁垂木. The Jikidou at Houryuuji, Houdouji and Kongouji have double eaves *futanoki 二軒, but at Onjouji and Enkyouji the eaves are single *hitonoki 一軒. The bracket complexes are relatively simple: Houryuuji has large bearing blocks and bracket arms, *daito hijiki 大斗肘木, Houdouji and Kongouji have 3-on-1 at right angles to each other *demitsudo 出三斗. Onjouji has boat-shaped bracket arms *funahijiki 舟肘木; at Enkyouji the ground floor under the railing has 3-stepped bracket complexes *mitesaki tokyou 三手先斗きょう in the daibutsu style *daibutsuyou大仏様, but the upper floor has two-stepped bracket complexes *futatesaki gumi 二手先組 with struts capped with bearing blocks *kentozuka 間斗束, in the interstices *nakazonae 中備. The interstices between bracket complexes of the Jikidou at Houdouji, Kongouji and Onjouji have bearing blocks.


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