|KEY WORD : architecture / buildings & structures|
大雄宝殿. The main hall of a Zen temple. Butsuden can be classified into
three different types.
1 The simplest is 3 x 3 bays and does not have an additional aisle, *mokoshi 裳階. Examples include: Butsuden of Fusaiji 普済寺(1357) in Kyoto is 5.75 x 5.75 square., and Butsuden of Ten'onji 天恩寺 (1362) in Aichi prefecture is 6.25 x 6.99m.
2 A 3 x 3 bay hall with a mokoshi, which is an additional aisle one bay deep with pent roof and bracket arms *hijiki 肘木, inserted directly into the shafts of the core *moya 母屋, pillars. Examples include: Butsuden of Saionji 最恩寺 (mid 14c) in Yamanashi prefecture, including the mokoshi, is 3 x 3 bays, 6.26 x 6.26m. The moya is 1 x 1 bay square. However, on the interior behind the altar there are two pillars *raigoubashira 来迎柱, with a wall *raigoukabe 来迎壁, stretched between them. Butsuden of Kouzanji 功山寺 (1320) in Yamaguchi prefecture has a moya that is 3 x 3 bays with a mokoshi added, making it a 5 x 5 bay building as viewed from the exterior. Like the smaller Butsuden of Saionji, it has raigoubashira and raigoukabe.
3 Very large butsuden, 5 x 5 bays square with a mokoshi added are known to have been built during the 13c and 14c, but the only extant ones are the large 3 x 3 bay-type surrounded by a mokoshi. Examples include: Butsuden of Sennyuuji 泉涌寺(1669) in Kyoto, which is 17.73 x 15.95m including the mokoshi. The core area has pillars of large diameter all around and a platform with steps on both sides and at the front. Butsuden of Myoushinji 妙心寺 (1827) in Kyoto is 17.04 x 17.04m with a usual arrangement of a 3 x 3 bay core except that the pillar at the center rear has been omitted. The mokoshi is 5-bays around the core. Both buildings have raigoubashira and raigoukabe. Many buildings called *hondou 本堂 or named after the main image enshrined are also known as butsuden. Examples: Butsuden of Toukouji 東光寺 (1538) in Yamanashi prefecture; Hondou of Daitokuji 大徳寺 (1665) in Kyoto; as well as Butsuden of Daitokuji.
Toukouji Butsuden 東光寺仏殿 (Yamanashi)
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