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bussho@
KEY WORD :@art history / sculptures
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A workshop or school of Buddhist sculptors *busshi t. Bussho usually refers either to workshops active from the 10c on run by a temple or to independent workshops, as opposed to government-run workshops *zoubussho of the late 7-8c. Jouchou 蒩 (?-1057) is regarded as the founding father of Japan's most important 11-12c bussho, which are the En school *Enpa ~h; In school *Inpa @h; and Kei school *Keiha ch. The En and In schools were situated in Kyoto *kyoto busshi st; the En school had a large workshop in *sanjou bussho O𕧏, and the In school had large workshops in Shichijou-Oomiya *shichijou oomiya bussho {, and Rokujou madenokouji *rokujou madenokouji bussho, Z𖜗H. The Kei school was based at Koufukuji in Nara *nara busshi ޗǕt, with another workshop in Kyoto Shichijou *shichijou bussho 𕧏. During the Heian period, all these bussho based their sculptural style on that of Jouchou 蒩 (see *Jouchouyou 蒩l), and produced works commissioned by the court, nobility, and temples. Most busshi were also Buddhist priests, and the position of bussho head *daibusshi 啧t, was normally passed on from father to son. Under the daibusshi's supervision were a team of artists *shoubusshi t, who had specialized skills. For example *saishiki busshi ʐFt painted the haloes and pedestals on statues, and *hakushi t applied gold leaf. This enabled a division of labour that was efficient for large projects. Jouchou is said to have had 120 sculptors working in his studio. His only surviving work is Amida Nyoraizou ɔ@ (1053) in Byoudouin *Hououdou @P, Kyoto. In the 13-14c, bussho subdivided and opened new workshops. The Keiha flourished at that time, through the patronage of the Kamakura government. Shichijou bussho, for example, expanded to three workshops: shichijou naka bussho 𒆕, shichijou higashi bussho 𓌕, and shichijou nishi bussho 𐼕. New schools of Nara sculptors *nanto busshi st were particularly important: *Zenpa Ph was set up in the 13c, *tsubai bussho ֈ䕧 in the 14c, and *takama bussho ԕ and *shukuin busshi h@t were active in the 15-16c. Shukuin was one of the first bussho where sculptors worked as laymen without assuming the status of monks. Other so-called commercial workshops of this kind were active during the 17-19c, and the bussho system itself survived until the 19c. Regional workshops outside Kyoto and Nara, established since the Heian period, also followed the bussho model established by Jouchou.
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