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bussho@
KEY WORD :@art history / sculptures
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A workshop or school of Buddhist sculptors *busshi t. Bussho usually refers either to workshops active from the 10c on run by a temple or to independent workshops, as opposed to government-run workshops *zoubussho of the late 7-8c. Jouchou 蒩 (?-1057, see *Jouchouyou 蒩l) is regarded as the founding father of Japan's most important 11-12c bussho, which are the En school *Enpa ~h; In school *Inpa @h; and Kei school *Keiha ch. The En and In schools were situated in Kyoto *kyoto busshi st; the En school had a large workshop in *sanjou bussho O𕧏, and the In school had large workshops in Shichijou-Oomiya *shichijou oomiya bussho {, and Rokujou madenokouji *rokujou madenokouji bussho, Z𖜗H. The Kei school was based at Koufukuji in Nara *nara busshi ޗǕt, with another workshop in Kyoto Shichijou *shichijou bussho 𕧏. During the Heian period, all these bussho based their sculptural style on that of Jouchou, and produced works commissioned by the court, nobility, and temples. Most busshi were also Buddhist priests, and the position of bussho head *daibusshi 啧t, was normally passed on from father to son. Under the daibusshi's supervision were a team of artists *shoubusshi t, who had specialized skills. For example *saishiki busshi ʐFt painted the haloes and pedestals on statues, and *hakushi t applied gold leaf. This enabled a division of labour that was efficient for large projects. Jouchou is said to have had 120 sculptors working in his studio. His only surviving work is Amida Nyoraizou ɔ@ (1053) in Byoudouin *Hououdou @P, Kyoto. In the 13-14c, bussho subdivided and opened new workshops. The Keiha flourished at that time, through the patronage of the Kamakura government. Shichijou bussho, for example, expanded to three workshops: shichijou naka bussho 𒆕, shichijou higashi bussho 𓌕, and shichijou nishi bussho 𐼕. New schools of Nara sculptors *nanto busshi st were particularly important: *Zenpa Ph was set up in the 13c, *tsubai bussho ֈ䕧 in the 14c, and *takama bussho ԕ and *shukuin busshi h@t were active in the 15-16c. Shukuin was one of the first bussho where sculptors worked as laymen without assuming the status of monks. Other so-called commercial workshops of this kind were active during the 17-19c, and the bussho system itself survived until the 19c. Regional workshops outside Kyoto and Nara, established since the Heian period, also followed the bussho model established by Jouchou.
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