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Inpa@‰@”h
KEY WORD :@art history / sculptures
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A school of Buddhist sculptors *busshi •§Žt, based in Kyoto, active from the late Heian through the Kamakura period. The Inpa, together with the *Enpa ‰~”h school, active in Kyoto during the same period, are collectively known as *kyoto busshi ‹ž“s•§Žt. Inpa was founded by Jouchou's ’è’© grandson Injo ‰@• (?-1077), and had major workshops *bussho •§Š, in *shichijou oomiya bussho Žµð‘å‹{•§Š and *rokujou madenokouji bussho ˜Zð–œ—¢¬˜H•§Š. The name Inpaderived from the frequent use of the character ‰@ In in sculptors' names. The best known members were; Injo's pupils Inkaku ‰@Šo and Inchou ‰@’© in the mid-12c, and their pupils Inson ‰@‘¸ (1120-98), Inkei ‰@Œc, and Inshou ‰@® in the late 12c. Of these sculptors Inson was considered the most eminent, and was awarded the highest rank of the Buddhist priesthood in the late 12c, when the Inpa school dominated Japanese sculpture-making. They worked mainly on commissions for the Heian imperial court and nobility, and their style is representative of so-called Japanese style *wayou ˜a—l sculpture; gentle, with elegant features such as long, extended eyebrows, and smoothly undulating robes. Examples include the Amida Nyoraizazou ˆ¢–í‘É”@—ˆ¿‘œ (1130) in Houkkongouin –@‹à„‰@, believed to be by Inkaku; the Juuichimen Kannonzou \ˆê–ʊω¹‘œ (1233) in Houshakuji •óÏŽ›, by Inson's pupil Inpan ‰@”Í; and the Shoutoku Taishizou ¹“¿‘¾Žq‘œ (1252) in Ninnnaji m˜aŽ›, by Inchi ‰@’q, all in Kyoto. Unfortunately none of Inson's works survive, although records assert that he was responsible for the construction of the halo for Nara's Toudaiji *Daibutsu “Œ‘厛‘啧 after fire damage in 1180. Between 1251 and 1266 many Inpa sculptors participated in construction of the Sentai senju Kannonzou ç‘̐çŽèŠÏ‰¹‘œ for Rengeouin ˜@‰Ø‰¤‰@ (Sanjuusangendou ŽO\ŽOŠÔ“°), Kyoto. The calm, graceful style of the Inpa perfectly suited the taste of the Kyoto aristocracy. Inpa fortunes declined in the Kamakura period when the Kamakura goverment came to favor the Nara based *Keiha Œc”h school. The Inpa continued production on a smaller scale, and enjoyed a revival in the late 14c when they worked for Shogun families and temples of the Zen ‘T and Ritsu —¥ sects in the Tokyo area.
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REFERENCES:
*Jouchouyou ’è’©—l
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NOTES
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