|kyoto busshi 京都仏師|
|KEY WORD : art history / sculptures|
|Also kyoubusshi 京仏師. Buddhist sculptors *busshi 仏師 associated with workshops *bussho 仏所 in Kyoto, active from the 11-14c. The term is used in contrast to Nara sculptors *nara busshi 奈良仏師 and *nanto busshi 南都仏師. The most important kyoto busshi consisted of two sculpture schools called *Enpa 円派 and *Inpa 院派. They were independently run (not government-managed), and produced statues commissioned by the Imperial court, nobility, and Buddhist temples. The En-pa, who often used the character 'En' 円 in their names, are thought to be descended from Jouchou's 定朝 (?-1057) pupil Chousei 長勢 (1010-91). Their workshop was known as *sanjou bussho 三条仏所 because of its location in Kyoto's Sanjou 三条 district. The Inpa, said to have been founded by Jouchou's pupil Kakujo 覚助 (?-1077), often used the character 'In' 院 in sculptors' names. Inpa had workshops in Kyoto's Shichijou-Oomiya *shichijou oomiya bussho 七条仏所 and Rokujou madenokouji *rokujou madenokouji bussho 六条万里小路仏所. In the late Heian period, kyoto busshi held a dominant position in Japanese Buddhist statuary, producing large numbers of figures in a gentle style based on Jouchou's *Jouchouyou 定朝様. Good examples include: Nikkou Gakkou Bosatsuzou 日光･月光菩薩像 (1064) by Enpa sculptor Chousei in Kouryuuji 広隆寺, and the Amida Nyoraizazou 阿弥陀如来坐像 (1130) in Houkongouin 法金剛院, believed to be by Inkaku 院覚, both in Kyoto. In the early Kamakura period, some critics felt that kyoto busshi statues had become staid, and other schools such as *Keiha 慶派, supported by the Kamakura government, became dominant.|
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