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zoubussho@‘¢•§Š
KEY WORD :@art history / sculptures
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Government-run workshops making Buddhist statues during the Nara period (late 7-8c). Post-9c independent and temple-run workshops were called *bussho •§Š. In the Nara period, the government set up a temporary office zoujishi ‘¢Ž›Ži, when a temple was to be constructed. Under the supervision of the zoujishi, was the zoubussho, which made statues for the new temple. When construction was finished the zoujishi and zoubussho were reduced in size or closed down. The head of a zoubussho was known as bettou •Ê“– and his deputy as shouryou «—Ì. Sculptors were divided according to specialist skills kou H (shikou ŽiH and kokou ŒÙH ), or general skills bu •v (jichou Žd’š and kobu ŒÙ•v). Shikou had a permanent position in the workshop and the status of government employee, while kokou were hired for temporary periods. Jichou did a variety of errands, and kobu non-skilled heavy labor. From the late 7c, important zoubussho were located in Yakushiji –òŽtŽ›, Daianji ‘åˆÀŽ›, Koufukuji ‹»•ŸŽ› and other Nara temples. The largest and longest-working workshop was at Toudaiji “Œ‘厛, *Zou Toudaiji Zoubussho ‘¢“Œ‘厛‘¢•§Š, and was active in approximately 748-789. In 762-3, there were 1619 sculptors recorded as working there. These sculptors were responsible for wood, dry-lacquer, clay statuary and various other artifacts. Metal statues were made in a separate casting workshop chuusho ’’Š. After the closure of Zou Toudaiji Bussho, no new government workshops were set up, and many sculptors became temple employees or worked independently.
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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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