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Zou Toudaiji Zoubussho@‘¢“Œ‘厛‘¢•§Š
KEY WORD :@ art history / sculptures
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Also Toudaiji Zoubussho “Œ‘厛‘¢•§Š. A workshop which made statues for Toudaiji “Œ‘厛 in Nara. In 748, the government set up a temporary bureau zoujishi ‘¢Ž›Ži to oversee the building of Toudaiji, and the sculpture workshop *zoubussho ‘¢•§Š operated under the supervision of this bureau. The zoubussho was responsible for the production of wood, dry-lacquer, clay statues and temple accessories. Bronze statues, including the Great Buddha *daibutsu ‘啧, were made in a separate metal-casting workshop, chuusho ’’Š. Zou Toudaiji Zoubussho developed from Konkoumyouji ‹àŒõ–¾Ž› zoubussho (742-48), and was the largest and longest-working zoubussho of the Nara period (late 7-8c, active from 748-89). In the years 762-63, period documents report that 1619 sculptors *busshi •§Žt, worked there. The workshop had two directors bettou •Ê“–: one was charged with administrative responsibility; and the other with technical supervision. Each bettou had a deputy: the administrative deputy was called shouryou «—Ì; and technical deputy choujou ’·ã. Under them worked the skilled sculptors zakkou ŽGH, errand boys jichou Žd’š, and laborers kobu ŒÙ•v. Zou Toudaiji Zoubussho held a powerful position in 8c Japanese statuary, and outstanding examples of late-Nara period works are preserved in Toudaiji. These include the dry lacquer *Shitennou Žl“V‰¤ and *Kongou rikishi ‹à„—ÍŽm, the painted clay Nikkou Gakkou “úŒõEŒŽŒõ, *Bonten ž“V and *Taishakuten ’éŽß“V in the *Hokkedou –@‰Ø“° (Sangatsudou ŽOŒŽ“°). When work on Toudaiji statues was finished, the government employed Toudaiji Zoubussho sculptors to make statues for other temples, including Ishiyamadera ÎŽRŽ› in Shiga prefecture, Saidaiji ¼‘厛 and Toushoudaiji “‚µ’玛 in Nara, and Touji “ŒŽ› and Saiji ¼Ž› in Kyoto. Because of a shortage of sculptors, the zoubussho employed independent sculptors satojin —¢l to supplement the work of permanent employees shikou ŽiH. With the closure of Zou Toudaiji Zoubussho the system of government-run sculpture workshops zoubussho came to an end. Most Toudaiji sculptors went to work for temples in Nara, such as Yakushiji –òŽtŽ› and Shin'yakushiji V–òŽtŽ›, or set up private workshops.
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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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