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kibitsu-zukuri@‹g”õ’Ñ¢
CATEGORY:@architecture / shrines
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Also kibi-zukuri ‹g”õ‘¢ and *hiyoku irimoya-zukuri ”ä—ƒ“ü•ê‰®‘¢. A unique style of shrine architecture limited to the main sanctunary, *honden –{“a and workship hall, *haiden ”q“a at Kibitsu Jinja ‹g”õ’Ð_ŽÐ, in Okayama prefecture. The present honden is dated 1425 according to an inscription found attached to the ridge. The older honden was completely gutted in 1061, rebuilt, and destroyed again in 1351. A strong influence from the daibutsu style, *daibutsuyou ‘啧—l, established by the Buddhist priest, Chougen (1121-1206), is unmistakable. Chougen donated a bell to the Kibitsu Jinja around the time of one of its reconstructions. The plan, 14.64 m x 17.99 m, is extraordinarily large compared to the average sized honden. While the Kibitsu Jinja is the same width as most shrines, 5 bays in front and 7 bays in the rear, it is eight bays deep on each side. However, all bays are not of equal width but correspond to the depth of each division of the interior. See plan. This unique style is easily identified by the unusual variation the typical hip-and-gable roof, *irimoya-zukuri “ü•ê‰®‘¢. A roof called hiyoku irimoya-zukuri covers the honden. It is characterized by additional ridges constructed at a right angle to the main ridge allowing the creation of two false dormer gables, *chidori hafu ç’¹”j•—, on each side of the roof. Layers of cypress bark, *hiwadabuki žw”畘 cover the roof. The honden sits on a very high tortoise belly foundation *kamebara ‹T• , a mound of hard packed earth and rubble covered with a thick layer of white plaster *shikkui Ž½‹ò. Surrounding the honden is a shallow, railed veranda, marwari-en ‰ñ‰. The complex interior contains two sanctuaries. The innermost, *nainaijin “à“àw, is 3 ~ 2 bays and resembles a common three bay space *sangensha ŽOŠÔŽÐ. This is bordered on the front by a 3 x 1 bay inner sanctuary, *naijin “àw, which has three sets of descending steps: the first is in the front of the nainaijin and extends the width equal of the central bay; the second and third set of steps are on either end and are equal in width to the single bay depth of the naijin. The two sanctuaries together can be equated with a honden in ordinary shrines. At the bottom of the second set of steps is a 1-bay deep ~ 5-bays wide *kouhai Œü”q (lit. worship place). Surrounding the whole is the *chuujin ’†w. Parallel to the steps leading from the naijin to the chuujin are stairs descending to an outer aisle, *gejin ŠOw. There are also stairs at the center front which lead down to the kouhai-no-ma Œü”qŠÔ, also called ake-no-dan Žé’d, a 5 x 1 bay area a step above the gejin. The entire area including the floor, pillars (these do not have bracket complexes, and directly bear the weight of a huge beam), stairs, railings and doors are all covered with vermillion lacquer tanshu-urushi ’OŽéŽ½. Even the coffered ceiling, *goutenjou Ši“Vˆä, is accented with the same brilliant vermilion and a rich black lacquer. The tie beam, *nuki ŠÑ, is also painted black. The height of all ceilings rise in relation to the height of each floor. The unusual outer sanctuary, gejin, completely surrounds the above described inner sanctuary and is similar to the plan of a *jougyoudou ís“°, a hall for circumambulation, found in certain temples of the Tendai sect. The haiden, 1 x 3 bays, surrounded by a skirting pentroof, *mokoshi ÖŠK on three sides, is attached to one end of the honden. It is about eight steps lower than the veranda surrounding the honden. The main roof is gabled, *kirizuma yane ØÈ‰®ª, and like the honden is covered with layers of cypress bark. The pent roofs of the mokashi are tiled, *kawarabuki Š¢•˜. A main roof with pent roofs below is also called koshiyane ˜‰®ª. The entire building, with single rafters extending to form deep eaves, is clearly a conglomerate style with characteristics traceable to the *wayou ˜a—l, daibutsuyou and *zenshuuyou ‘T@—l.. The following are the dominant characteristics of the wayou style: bracket complexes, *kumimono ‘g•¨, placed directly on top of the pillars; a circuler plate, *sarato ŽM“l, between the large bearing blocks, *daito ‘å“l, and the top of the pillar; an uppermost bracket minus bearing blocks, *sanehijiki ŽÀ•I–Ø, directly supporting a beam; vertically latticed windows, *renjimado ˜AŽq‘‹, and simple rainbow beams, *kouryou “ø—À. The Daibutsu and Zen styles have the following characteristics: a groove, *shakujoubori Žàä’¤, cut on the undersides of rainbow beams; bottle struts, *taiheizuka ‘å•r‘©, between the rainbow beams and ridge in the haiden; extended ends or nosing, *kibana –Ø•@, carved with cyma curves, *shinogi èM; and bracket arms inserted directly into the pillars. All these stylistic elements are combined with exceedingly tall pillars, and exposed-rafter ceilings in the haiden. These features combined with the overall enormity of the building creates the unique kibitsu style.
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Kibitsu Jinja ‹g”õ’Ð_ŽÐ (Okayama)

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