kibana 木鼻
KEY WORD : architecture / general terms
The nosings that appear either as an extension of a tie beam *nuki 貫, or bracket arm *hijiki 肘木, or as an attachment called *kakebana 懸鼻, connected by means of an elongated tenon-and-mortise butt joint *saobiki dokko 竿引独鈷 to the exterior side of pillar *hashira 柱, head penetrating tie beam *kashiranuki 頭貫, or a rainbow beam *kouryou 虹梁. Nosings were at first very plain with simple moldings, called fist moldings *kobushibana 拳鼻, applied to the outer cut end of a roof member. Gradually they were decorated with carved spiral patterns *eyou 絵様, in the Zen style *zenshuuyou 禅宗様, and highlighted with black ink on each side. Elaborate moldings and incised patterns *kurigata 繰形, with a peak or ridge on the molded ends eventually replaced the simple undulating types. During the 14c., patterns of young leaves came into vogue. The decorative elements became more and more elaborate during the late Muromachi period and continued to evolve through the Momoyama and Edo periods. These ornate nosings, with their floriated and foliated motifs, and the appearance of a openwork relief sculpture and basket like carving, are characteristic of the late 16c〜19c. On the other hand the daibutsu style *daibutsuyou 大仏様, used animal forms, the most familiar being one that resembled an elephant with a raised trunk *zoubana 象鼻. There were no decorative patterns carved on nosings in the wayou style *wayou 和様, before the introduction of daibutsuyou at the end of 12c, and the increasingly popular zenshuuyou during the 13c. Influences from these styles can be found on wayou buildings, including attached nosings, but they never became very elaborate.


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