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kouryou@
CATEGORY:@architecture / general terms
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Lit. rainbow beam. A generic term for any curved transverse tie beam. It is used almost exclusively in temple or shrine construction. Ordinary rainbow beams are large and usually span two bays. They function as tie beams which cross over the core *moya ꉮ of the building from pillar to pillar. They also bear much of the deadload of the roof structure and sometimes of the ceiling. The rainbow beam of the ancient period is characterized by a gentle curves from top to bottom, by rounded corners, by an inverted trapezoidal shape in cross section and by a lack of decoration. In the medieval period, with the introduction of the daibutsu style *daibutsuyou 啧l and Zen style *zenshuuyou T@l, changes occurred. daibutsu style rainbow beams were huge and circular. Although comparatively straight on the underside, the upperside was sharply curved at both ends to enable them to be inserted into brackets or directly into the pillars themselves. Their extended ends were molded on the upperside and channeling was applied to the underside. Zen style rainbow beams were higher although overall they were thinner and rectangular in cross section. To enable insertion into a relatively small bracket complex, the ends were cut diagonally on the uppersides *sodekiri . Various decorative features were added to the underside including carved moldings on the lower edges *kakimayu and channeling on the underside *shakujoubori . In addition to ordinary rainbow beams, there are a number of others named for their location, function or shape:

1@Uchimuro kouryou are rainbow beams installed on the underside of an open roof *keshou yaneura ω, when a ceiling is not installed.

2@Uchikouryou are used on the underside of a roof in buildings that have no ceilings.

3@Sotokouryou O are placed on the outerside of a structure.

4@Tsumakouryou ȓ are rainbow beams used and exposed within the gable pediment of a gable roof *kirizuma yane ؍ȉ or a hip-and-gable roof *irimoya yane ꉮ.

5@*Mizuhiki kouryou is a rainbow beam which spans the distance between the outer pillars of a step-canopy *kouhai q in a shrine or temple.

6@*Tsunagikouryou q are rainbow beams placed between the outer pillars of the aisles *hisashi and the pillars surrounding the core of the building *moya ꉮ or between the pent roof addition beyond the hisashi, *mokoshi ֊K and the moya pillars. They also connect the outer pillars of the step-canopy and the body of the building where they are attached above the head tie beams *kashiranuki .

7@*Ebikouryou CV; (also written ړ) Lit. a lobster or shrimp shaped rainbow beam. It is so-named because of the shape of its curve. It came into use in the hisashi of Zen style buildings or in hisashi influenced by the Zen style. At first, only the upperside was given a hump while the ends of the curved underside were inserted into the hisashi and moya pillars at the same height. Later, the beam was given such an exaggerated curve that the end inserted into the moya pillar was at a higher level than the end inserted into the hisashi pillar.
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Houryuuji Denpoudou @`@ (Nara)
sotokouryou O, tsumakouryou ȓ
a) *tsunagikouryou q@b) daikouryou @c) nijuukouryou d
Houryuuji Denpoudou @`@ (Nara)

uchimuro kouryou
Shoufukuji Jizoudou n (Tokyo)
Houryuuji Kairou @L (Kyoto)
uchikouryou
Houryuuji Kairou @L (Kyoto)

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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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