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hashira@
KEY WORD :@architecture / general terms
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The generic term for any type of pillar, column, post, pier and strut, the basic members of Japanese timber architecture. The character, itself, is made up of ki meaning tree or wood and, by extension building timber; and meaning main, chief, or master. In traditional construction, pillars are erected first and then all the structural parts including tie beams, roof framework and covering are added. Walls *kabe are not supporting structures. Stone pillars are not used in traditional buildings but are to be found in many *torii , the post and lintel gateways marking the entrances to Shinto shrines *jinja _. Round stone pillars employed entasis in the 7c - 8c but this was later abandoned. From the 13c onward, Zen style *zenshuuyou T@l pillars were rounded at the top and bottom *chimaki . Some pillars were chamfered *mentori ʎ and between the 10c - 13c the usual chamfer was 1/5 of the pillar's diameter. Gradually, chamfers became smaller until the 17c, when a standard chamfer of 1/10 the pillar's diameter was established. Various pillars include *tooshibashira ʂ, which extend to the height of two stories; kudabashira ǒ which are erected directly above each other but are separated by ceiling and flooring construction between the stories of a building; *hottatebashira @ which are set directly in the ground without base stones. Corner pillars *sumibashira , were built higher than others depending on the degree of upward curvature on the eaves. This arrangement is called suminobe . Sometimes pillars were erected with a slight inward inclination *uchikorobi ], toward the top to add to the feeling of stability. This system was also used in China. Pillars are also named according to their placement: square pillars supporting the canopy of the steps leading up to the veranda of a shrine or temple building are called kouhaibashira q; pillars surrounding the inner sanctuary of a temple are called naijinbashira w; the central pillar in a pagoda is called the *shinbashira S; the four guardian pillars in a pagoda or temple building are called *shitenbashira lV; ridge supporting pillars are called munamochibashira ; pillars at each end of a wall placed behind the Buddhist altar are painted with the descent of the *Amida Buddha. These pillars are called *raigoubashira }. Those separating the core area *moya ꉮ and aisles *hisashi are called irigawabashira (the entire moya may be the inner sanctuary in which case the naijinbashira and irigawabashira are synonyms). Square posts, called kakubashira p, are also used on subordinate building parts, such as *mokoshi ֊K, outer aisles *magobisashi , and the secondary posts *mabashira Ԓ are used between pillars for strengthening.
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Houryuuji Chuumon @ (Nara)
Houryuuji Chuumon @ (Nara)

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REFERENCES:
*tokobashira , *hikaebashira T, *menkawabashira ʔ璌
EXTERNAL LINKS: 
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NOTES
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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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