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renjimado@˜AŽq‘‹
KEY WORD :@architecture / general terms
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Also written ŸQŽq‘‹. Lit. a row lath window.

1@A window with vertical or horizontal wooden laths or bamboo, called renjiko ˜AŽqŽq or ko Žq, are lined up at given intervals. Vertical laths may also be called taterenji ’G˜AŽq and horizontal ones yokorenji ‰‘˜AŽq. Muntins may also be inserted in a window frame at an angle, often 45 degrees, with a corner facing outward. The oldest renjimado are found in the main image hall *Kondou ‹ΰ“°, the pagoda *tou “ƒ, and the outer wall of the semi-enclosed corridor, or cloister *Kairou ‰ρ˜L at Houryuuji –@—²Ž› (end of 7c-8c) in Nara. The muntins are at an angle and widely enough spaced so that the outside can be seen easily. Sometimes the muntins are set into window frames so closely that they touch each other. In this case they are considered purely decorative and are called *mekurarenji –Σ˜AŽq (blind muntins). Blind muntins are often found on the dais *shumidan {–ν’d, where the Buddhist images are placed.
When renjimado are used on doors, the moulding or framework around them is usually chamfered.
See *mentori –ΚŽζ, *karadomen “‚ŒΛ–Κ, *kichoumen ™{’ –Κ or *kirimen Ψ–Κ.
Renjimado as explained above are characteristic of the wayou style *wayou ˜a—l. For example, Daigoji *Kyouzou ‘ηŒνŽ›Œo‘  (1198), Kyoto and burned in 1939, had renjimado with muntins. The spaces between them, called komagaeshi ¬ŠΤ•Τ, were equal in width. They are the only known examples of renjimado built in the daibutsu style *daibutsuyou ‘啧—l. Some buildings in the Zen style *zenshuuyou ‘T@—l, have windows with curved muntins set vertically. Where there is a mixture of wayou and Zen style elements, renjimado were sometimes used, for example on the belfry Shourou ΰ˜O at Kongouji ‹ΰ„Ž›, built in the early 15c, Osaka.
By the end of the 16c, windows with only horizontal muntins began to appear on dwellings in the shoin style *shoin-zukuri ‘‰@‘’.



Houryuuji Sai-in Kairou –@—²Ž›Ό‰@‰ρ˜L (Nara)

2@Also written ŸQŽq‘‹, ˜AŽ ‘‹; reirou ŸQžΧ.
A type of lattice window commonly associated with tea ceremony architecture constructed at the end of the Muromachi period. Its popularity increased during the Momoyama period with increased devotion to the tea ceremony. Eventually, the merchant class began to include renjimado in their houses. They were characterized by small bamboo or square lattice nailed vertically to the outside of a window sill and lintel. Transverse penetrating rails were inserted between the sill and lintel to give a light and rustic appearance. An odd number of muntins were required and were set about 10cm apart. The number of muntins varied according to the size of the window. Occasionally, only a single muntin was used and was usually centered. Another variation set two or three muntins closely together leaving a wide empty area. At other times, many muntins were crowded together in irregular arrangements. Double or single, sliding paper-covered wooden frames *shouji αŽq, were placed between the sill and lintel on the inner side of the lattice. Either hanging wooden doors *kakedo Š|ŒΛ, or rain shutters *amado ‰JŒΛ, were hung on the outside when needed. Sometimes a matchstick blind *sudare —ϊ, was hung outside on a bent nail. On occasion, a single sliding door covered the entire window when closed. A lack of space within the wall prevented the window from sliding far enough to be completely opened. This was an important feature that enhanced the tea ceremony room giving it an unique character. Example: Jo'an ”@ˆΑ, Aichi prefecture.

Koudaiji Ihou'an ‚‘δŽ›ˆβ–FˆΑ (Kyoto)

3@In early temple buildings, a window opening filled with square, vertical muntins. These were placed so that their edges were placed on the diagonal.
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