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goutenjou@iV
KEY WORD :@architecture / general terms
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A coffered ceiling. A ceiling with ribs framing recessed panels.

1@The simplest type of coffered ceiling is constructed with intersecting chamfered ribs *goubuchi i, which form relatively large square spaces up to about one meter square called gouma i or *gou-ita i. The spaces are closed with plain wood panel backing called ura-ita . The ribs usually measure 6-7cm in cross section. The chamfers on all outer edges vary from ceiling to ceiling. The goutenjou is suspended from tie beams and is not part of the structural frame work as is the ordinary latticed ceiling *kumiire tenjou gV, which has no coffers. Although associated with temples, shrines and formal residences, chiefly from the Kamakura period and thereafter, the oldest extant example is the ceiling of the octagonal hall *Hakkakudou p, Eizanji hR (757-64) in Nara. By the Momoyama and Edo periods, the coffers were elaborately decorated with paintings or with patterns woven in silk and metal decoration and then applied to the ribs.
Nikkou Toushouguu Sakashitamon @Ƌ{≺ (Tochigi)
Nikkou Toushouguu Sakashitamon Ƌ{≺ (Tochigi)

2@If the panel backing in each coffer is covered with a mesh of closely spaced latticework, the ceiling is called *kogumi goutenjou giV. Example: Fukidera Daidou xM哰 (late Heian period), Ooita prefecture. This ceiling is found over the inner sanctuary. It is a finely latticed, coved and coffered ceiling *oriage kogumi goutenjou ܏㏬giV.

3@When the simple coffered ceiling is surrounded by a coved band with curved ribs directly in line with the ribs of the ceiling itself, it is called *oriage goutenjou ܏iV.
Kenchouji Butsuden a (Kanagawa)
Kenchouji Butsuden a (Kanagawa)

4@If the recessed panels in the coved and coffered ceiling are filled with closely spaced lattice applied to the panel backing, it is called a coved, coffered and finely latticed ceiling or oriage-kogumi-goutenjou. Example: Joudoji Amidadou yɓ; Hiroshima prefecture.

5@There are occasions when a part of a coved, coffered and finely latticed is raised above the altar within the inner sanctuary of a temple. In this case, it is supported by curved ribs forming a second cove. Such a ceiling is called nijuu oriage kogumi goutenjou d܏㏬giV. Example; Fumon-in hondou @{, Fukuoka, early 14c. It denotes high rank, and it is also found in the most important rooms in aristocratic residences of the *shoin @.
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REFERENCES:
kagamitenjou V, saobuchi tenjou V, oriage tenjou ܏V, ajiro ԑ.
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