|KEY WORD : architecture / general terms|
A coffered ceiling. A ceiling with ribs framing recessed panels.
1 The simplest type of coffered ceiling is constructed with intersecting chamfered ribs *goubuchi 格縁, which form relatively large square spaces up to about one meter square called gouma 格間 or *gou-ita 格板. The spaces are closed with plain wood panel backing called ura-ita 裏板. The ribs usually measure 6-7cm in cross section. The chamfers on all outer edges vary from ceiling to ceiling. The goutenjou is suspended from tie beams and is not part of the structural frame work as is the ordinary latticed ceiling *kumiire tenjou 組入天井, which has no coffers. Although associated with temples, shrines and formal residences, chiefly from the Kamakura period and thereafter, the oldest extant example is the ceiling of the octagonal hall *Hakkakudou 八角堂, Eizanji 栄山寺 (757-64) in Nara. By the Momoyama and Edo periods, the coffers were elaborately decorated with paintings or with patterns woven in silk and metal decoration and then applied to the ribs.
Nikkou Toushouguu Sakashitamon 日光東照宮坂下門 (Tochigi)
2 If the panel backing in each coffer is covered with a mesh of closely spaced latticework, the ceiling is called *kogumi goutenjou 小組格天井. Example: Fukidera Daidou 富貴寺大堂 (late Heian period), Ooita prefecture. This ceiling is found over the inner sanctuary. It is a finely latticed, coved and coffered ceiling *oriage kogumi goutenjou 折上小組格天井.
3 When the simple coffered ceiling is surrounded by a coved band with curved ribs directly in line with the ribs of the ceiling itself, it is called *oriage goutenjou 折上格天井.
Kenchouji Butsuden 建長寺仏殿 (Kanagawa)
4 If the recessed panels in the coved and coffered ceiling are filled with closely spaced lattice applied to the panel backing, it is called a coved, coffered and finely latticed ceiling or oriage-kogumi-goutenjou. Example: Joudoji Amidadou 浄土寺阿弥陀堂; Hiroshima prefecture.
5 There are occasions when a part of a coved, coffered and finely latticed is raised above the altar within the inner sanctuary of a temple. In this case, it is supported by curved ribs forming a second cove. Such a ceiling is called nijuu oriage kogumi goutenjou 二重折上小組格天井. Example; Fumon-in hondou 普門院本堂, Fukuoka, early 14c. It denotes high rank, and it is also found in the most important rooms in aristocratic residences of the *shoin 書院.
|kagamitenjou 鏡天井, saobuchi tenjou 棹縁天井, oriage tenjou 折上天井, ajiro 網代.|
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