kumiire tenjou 組入天井
KEY WORD : architecture / general terms
Also kumiire 組入 or kumitenjou 組天井.

1 A latticed ceiling. Heavy, square ribs *goubuchi 格縁 are laid in a closely spaced (6-7.5 cm) grid pattern on boards or sheathing that cover the ceiling joists. The ribs are supported by the surrounding structural framework and are also strong enough to bear some of the weight of the timbers above. Kumiire tenjou is therefore regarded as part of the ceiling's structure. The coffered ceiling, kotenjou 小天井 is not. The kumiire tenjou has been in use from the 7c until the present day and is the oldest known type. The oldest extant example may be seen in Houryuuji *Kondou 法隆寺金堂 (rebuilt 693), Nara. Some ceilings are painted with red-orange or decorated with lotus or other floral patterns and geometric designs. The floral patterns include: one complete floral pattern contained within one space *ikken ikka 一間一花; or one fourth of a floral pattern placed in each of the four adjacent corners *shiken ikka 四間一花 creating one single floral design. This composition was common from the Nara through the Edo periods and was used in the decorating of coffered ceilings as well. Latticed ceilings are common in *wayou 和様 style high gates *roumon 楼門, in shrines such as Isonokami Jinja Haiden 石上神社拝殿 (13c), Nara.

2 A coved and latticed ceiling, oriage kumiire tenjou 折上組入天井 that is a variation of the latticed ceiling. The ceiling is surrounded by a coved border made of curved ribs that spring from purlins supported by bracket complexes which are attached to the ceiling framing joists. Examples includes: Toushoudaiji Kondou 唐招提寺金堂 (8c) Nara ; Byoudouin *Hououdou 平等院鳳凰堂 (1053) Kyoto.


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