@
oodo@‘åŒË
KEY WORD :@architecture / folk dwellings
@
1@ Lit. great door. Also called *oodoguchi ‘åŒËŒû. The door separating a main entrance, usually one bay wide, from the earth-floored area *doma “yŠÔ. Found in traditional vernacular houses *minka –¯‰Æ, the kitchens *daidokoro ‘䏊, of upper class residences, and the kitchen and office buildings *kuri ŒÉ—¡ of Zen temples. Oodo also referred to the doors at the entrance to the long dividing passage *kusa-no-ma ‘‚ÌŠÔ, in stables *umaya ‰X. The term was already in use by the 14c and was in general a solidly constructed timber door itado ”ÂŒË, or pair of doors which could be securely locked and barred at night. By the end of the Edo period these had been replaced or supplemented by lattice doors koushido ŠiŽqŒË, or even sliding screens *shouji áŽq. Elaborate examples from this period might have a double track arrangement, with a lattice door for daytime use and a solid door for use at night. In many cases the oodo incorporated a wicket *kugurido ö‚èŒË, allowing individuals to pass through when the main door was shut. There were four main types of oodo: (a) a timber swing door or pair of doors called itatobira ””à (see *itakarado ”“‚ŒË); (b) a single upward swinging door tsuriagedo ’Ý—g‚°ŒË, similar in principle to a hinged shutter *shitomido ŽÁŒË; (c) a one-way sliding door or pair of doors with flanking panel which concealed the door when open, sodekabetsuki katabikido ‘³•Ç•t‚«•Ðˆø‚«ŒË; (d) a pair of two-way sliding doors *hikichigai ˆøˆá. Illustrated hand scrolls, such as Ban Dainagon ekotoba ”º‘å”[Œ¾ŠGŽŒ (Idemitsu oŒõ Art Museum, Tokyo), depicting the capital in the last years of the Heian period, show that a pair of timber swing-doors of type (a) was already commonly used as an oodo in the houses of lesser officials by the 12c. It continued to be used in large scale ancillary temple buildings and kitchens until well into the Edo period. Urban houses of retailers and artisans *machiya ’¬‰Æ by the 19c, used a single swing-door a full bay in width with a central hinge, allowing one half to be folded back upon the other in the manner of double hinged doors *kannonbiraki tobira ŠÏ‰¹ŠJ”à, thus creating less obstruction when open. Type (b), the single swinging door, swung inwards and was supported when open by iron hangers suspended from beams or upper-floor joists. It had the advantage of not obstructing the space below when open. It was favored in town houses, which required an open front to display merchandise. To mitigate the unwieldiness of the single swinging door, it was sometimes divided into upper and lower panels, allowing it to be folded and then raised, but this design, which appeared in the 18c, made it difficult to incorporate a wicket door, and was not widely adopted. Type (c), the one way sliding door *katabikido •ÐˆøŒË, may be subdivided into two categories: a single wide sliding door and flanking panel, or a pair of symmetrical doors with a narrow panel on each side. The former type was almost ubiquitous in farmhouses, nouka ”_‰Æ, during the Edo period and was sometimes used in rural merchants' houses. The heavy door was usually equipped with wheels, let into the bottom rail. The variant with symmetrical flanking panels and a pair of doors was sometimes used in temple buildings and vernacular houses during the latter part of the Edo period. Type (d), the two-way sliding doors, was comparatively rare in vernacular houses of the early Edo period. By the end of the Edo period, however, it was not uncommon for two-way sliding doors to be inserted in the main entrance of farmhouses during the daytime, when the oodo itself stood open, necessitating extra framing for the runners. The earliest two-way sliding doors used as a type of oodo arrangement are found in the entrance to the long passage, kusa-no-ma, of the stables illustrated in the early 17c carpenter's manual *SHOUMEI  –¾. The opening in this case is about 3m (10 shaku ŽÚ) wide, thus each of the sliding doors is considerably larger than average.

2@In farmhouses in parts of Toyama and Fukui prefectures, the area of earth floor just inside the main entrance of the house.

3@In vernacular buildings in the western part of Shizuoka prefecture, the open space immediately in front of the main entrance to the house. It is believed to be an abbreviation of oodosaki ‘åŒËæ (the space before the great door).
@
Old Andou ˆÀ“¡ house (Yamanashi)
i1jOld Andou ˆÀ“¡ house (Yamanashi)

@
REFERENCES:
@
EXTERNAL LINKS: 
@@
NOTES
@

(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
ŒfÚ‚̃eƒLƒXƒgEŽÊ^EƒCƒ‰ƒXƒg‚ȂǁA‘S‚ẴRƒ“ƒeƒ“ƒc‚Ì–³’f•¡»E“]Ú‚ð‹Ö‚¶‚Ü‚·B
@