daidokoro 台所
CATEGORY: architecture / folk dwellings
 
1 Believed to be an abbreviated form of *daibandokoro 台盤所. The most common Japanese term for kitchen. From at least the Heian period, the term was used in the emperor's residential compound, Dairi 内裏, of the imperial palace and in the mansions of the aristocracy to refer to a room used for the final stages of food preparation and serving. By the medieval period the term was used in warrior houses.

2 From the 13c-19c, a building in upper class residences, used to prepare and cook food. Typically, it included an earth-floored area *doma 土間, equipped with a cooking range *kamado 竈, and sometimes a well *ido 井戸, and sink *nagashi 流し. In addition it incorporated a suite of raised floor rooms, some of which were equipped with an open hearth, *irori 囲炉裏, where more advanced stages of food preparation and serving took place. There was generally a smoke louvre *kemuridashi 煙出, in the roof. The building also contained storage space for food and utensils, and particularly in the medieval period, it is believed to have included accommodation for servants and lower members of the household. In large residences, such as the baronial mansions, daimyou yashiki 大名屋敷, of the Edo period, the main kitchen was often divided into two: a lower kitchen *shimodaidokoro 下台所, and an upper kitchen *kamidaidokoro 上台所. Alternative medieval terms for the upper class daidokoro include *mizushidokoro 御厨子所, zendokoro 膳所, and zenbu 膳部. In the Edo period the upper kitchen might alternatively be referred to as *kiyodokoro 清所 or *ryouri-no-ma 料理の間, and the lower kitchen as oodaidokoro 大台所.

3 In vernacular houses *minka 民家 of the Edo period daidokoro was: a term for the earth-floored area doma, in parts of Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Fukushima and Iwate prefectures: a cooking area in the rear part of the earth-floored area in houses with their entrance on the non-gabled side *hirairi 平入, in the Izumo region of Shimane prefecture ; a timber platform projecting from the raised living area, kyoshitsubu 居室部, into the earth-floored area in parts of Aomori, Yamagata Fukushima and Nagano prefectures and throughtout Hokuriku 北陸. The latter generally had an open hearth irori, cut into the floor and was used for food preparation, dining, and as a place for sedentary work, especially in winter.

4 In vernacular houses minka, of the Edo period in many districts, a term for the main living room *hiroma 広間, which extended the full cross-sectional depth of the building from front to back, in *hiromagata 広間型 houses. The boarded floor was often exposed and there was usually an open hearth irori. It served as a living and dining space and some cooking was done in the irori.

5 In vernacular houses minka of the Edo period with a 4-room or 6-room raised living area kyoshitsubu 居室部, the room in the rear range adjacent to the earth-floored area doma. It was used as a family parlor, dining room and for the preparation of food. It might be open to the doma or divided from it by sliding panels. In certain districts it contained an open hearth irori, though rarely in the Kinki 近畿 region, where the four-room house first emerged as a common minka type. It could also be a space toward the rear of the main living room hiroma, in kobeyatsuki hiromagata 小部屋付広間型 houses.

6 In urban vernacular houses *machiya 町家 of the Edo period, especially in the Kyoto area and regions influenced by it, a room to the rear of the shop *mise 店, adjacent to the earth-floored area doma, used for dining and the preparation of food and as a family parlor. It was also often referred to as the naka-no-ma 中の間. In all regions, daidokoro was often abbreviated to daidoko 台どこ and in certain areas to dedoko でどこ. Daidokoro is sometimes written 大所.
 
 

 
REFERENCES:
*katte 勝手, *kuri 庫裡
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