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yane@‰®ª
KEY WORD :@architecture / general terms
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Also called okugai ‰®ŠW, lit. roof covering. A generic term for various types of roofs, roof styles, and roofing. See *yane kouzou ‰®ª\‘¢ for roof structure.
The major types of roofs are gable *kirizuma-zukuri ØÈ‘¢, hipped yosemune-zukuri Šñ“‘¢, hip-and-gable *irimoya-zukuri “ü•ê‰®‘¢, and pyramidal roofs *hougyou-zukuri •óŒ`‘¢, including hatchuu ”ª’, a roof over an 8-sided building *hakkakudou ”ªŠp“°, and rokuchuu ˜Z’, a roof over a six-sided structure *rokkaku endou ˜ZŠp‰~“°.
The contours of the roofs vary and are not governed by the type of roof. There are four basic contours: 1 *chokusen yane ’¼ü‰®ª a roof with simple straight planes as at Sumiyoshi Taisha Z‹g‘åŽÐ (1596-1615) in Osaka; 2 teriyane Æ‚艮ª, also called soriyane ”½‰®ª, a roof that descends from the ridge to the eave ends with either gentle or strong. Kairyuuouji Saikondou ŠC—³‰¤Ž›¼‹à“° in Nara, Ankokuji Kyouzou ˆÀ‘Ž›Œo‘  in Gifu prefecture. 3 the formes shows gentle curving and the lather strong upward curves *mukuriyane ‹N‚艮ª, a roof that has a convex curve that slopes upward from eave ends *nokisaki Œ¬æ, to the ridge *munagi “–Ø, the uppermost roof of the pavilion called Hiunkaku ”ò‰_Št at Nishihonganji ¼–{ŠèŽ› (late 16c) in Kyoto; 4 terimukuri yane Æ‚è‹N‚艮ª, a roof with a convex curve in the upper part of the roof, as for example, the roof of the *karahafu “‚”j•—, gable at the front of the Tsukubusuma Shrine's main sanctuary, Tsukubusuma Jinja Honden “s‹v•v{–ƒ_ŽÐ–{“a (1602) in Shiga prefecture. *Shikorobuki èC•˜ is a very rare type of roof type. Its contours resemble a the hip-and-gable type roof, but the gable and hips are separate, without a continuous flow from the ridge to the eaves. Instead, the part that extends from the ridge to the base of the gable ends and the hips are connected beneath the gable ends and continue to the eave ends. Thus there is a very clear break between the two parts of the roof. Examples include the Tamamushi miniature shrine *Tamamushi no zushi ‹Ê’Ž~Žq (mid-7c) owned by Houryuuji –@—²Ž›, and Toudaiji Nenbutsudou “Œ‘厛”O•§“° (1238), both in Nara.
The Byoudouin *Hououdou •½“™‰@–P™€“° (1053) in Kyoto, exemplifies the combination of roof types with a variety of contours. By the 15c and 16c., new combinations of roofs had evolved. Building roofs from this era combined many parts and had many ridges such as *gongen-zukuri Œ Œ»‘¢, exemplified by Oosaki Hachiman Shaden ‘åè”ª”¦ŽÐ“a (1607) in Miyagi prefecture. Roofs of this type use tiles *kawara Š¢, cypress bark *hiwadabuki •O”畘, shingles *kokerabuki Š`•˜, various types grass, kusabuki ‘•˜, including cogon grass *kayabuki Š•˜, straw of wheat or rice warabuki ˜m•˜.
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*kirizuma yane
ØÈ‰®ª
*irimoya yane
“ü•ê‰®‰®ª
*yosemune yane
Šñ“‰®ª
*hougyou yane
•óŒ`‰®ª

Toudaiji Nenbutsudou “Œ‘厛”O•§“° (Nara)
*shikorobuki èC•˜FToudaiji Nenbutsudou “Œ‘厛”O•§“° (Nara)

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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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