gongen-zukuri 権現造
CATEGORY: architecture / shrines
 
Also called ishinoma-zukuri 石の間造, *yatsumune-zukuri 八棟造 and miyadera-zukuri 宮寺造. The latter name appears in the *SHOUMEI 匠明, a book dealing with the allotment of timber according to set standards used in the Edo period. A complex style of Shinto shrine and mausoleum in which the worship hall *haiden 拝殿, intermediate passageway *ai-no-ma 相の間, ishi-no-ma 石の間, or chuuden 中殿, and main sanctuary *honden 本殿, are connected under one very complicated roof. The roof is hip-and-gable style *irimoya-zukuri 入母屋造, on the haiden and honden. Sometimes the honden may have a flowing gable style roof, kirizuma nagare-zukuri 切妻流造, a gable style roof *ryousage 両下, and on the ai-no-ma (also called ishi-no-ma) a roof with ridge at right angles and attached to the ridges of the haiden and honden. False dormer gables *chidorihafu 千鳥破風, are added to the roof of the haiden, and an undulating gable added to the front eave nokikarahafu 軒唐破風, of the step-canopy *kouhai 向拝. Hence, the ridges of the honden and haiden are parallel, while all other ridges are at right angle. Although also called eight ridge style yatsumune-zukuri, it does not have eight ridges. In reality there are seven. It is traditionally said that "eight" in this case means "many"'. The floor levels of the three shrine parts, haiden, ai-no-ma and honden often vary. If the ai-no-ma is a step lower than the haiden, it is called ochima 落間. When the ai-no-ma is made of stone, it is sometimes called ishi-no-ma. Also, ai-no-ma with plank floors or those covered with straw mats are not uncommon. Some ai-no-ma are on the same level as the haiden, but rarely is the floor level higher. The width of the ai-no-ma is often the same as that of the honden, while the haiden is one to three bays wider. Sometimes this passageway is used as an offering hall and is therefore called *heiden 幣殿. The name gongen is derived from Toushou Daigongen 東照大権現, the title of Tokugawa Ieyasu 徳川家康 (1542-1616), the first shogun of the Edo period. Gongen is related to gonge 権化, which refers to a reincarnated being. Ieyasu expressed the wish to be deified after his death. His wishes were respected and his mausoleum at Nikkou Toushouguu 日光東照宮 (1635) Tochigi prefecture, hold his remains. The mausoleum's architectural style became known as gongen-zukuri. Examples: Kitano Tenmanguu 北野天満宮 (1607) Kyoto, Oosaki Hachimanguu 大崎八幡宮 (1607) Miyagi prefecture.
 

 
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