hougyou-zukuri 宝形造
KEY WORD : architecture / general terms
Also written 方形造; sometimes called the four-part style, shichuu-zukuri 四注造, or the square style, houkei-zukuri 方形造. A pyramidal style of roof constructed over a square building. There is no ridge *munagi 棟木. The hip rafters *sumigi 隅木, at each corner of the building extend directly upward to form a peak. Example: Shiramizu Amidadou 白水阿弥陀堂 (1160) in Fukushima prefecture. It is 3×3 bays, 9.39u. There is a hidden roof structure *noyane 野屋根, erected over the exposed roof, keshou yaneura 化粧屋根裏. The ceilings in both aisles *hisashi 廂, and in the core *moya 母屋, in this hall obscure both the hidden and exposed roofs except where the base rafters *jidaruki 地垂木, and flying rafters *hien daruki 飛檐垂木, extend beyond the outer walls. The framework of the roofs is supported by bracket arms and bearing blocks *tokyou 斗きょう, placed above the exposed rafters which are supported by the outer pillars and their stacked bracket complexes. These in turn support stout raking beams *noboribari 登梁, that support a grid of purlins and struts *tsuka 束, that carry the weight of the framework over which rafters *taruki 垂木, are laid. The roofing is made of rough shingles *tochibuki 栩葺. Pyramidal roofs are also built over hexagonal and octagonal halls, *rokkaku endou 六角円堂 and *hakkaku endou 八角円堂. Nevertheless, the basic principals of roof construction are the same. The former has six hip rafters dividing the roof into six planes while the latter has eight hip-rafters creating eight planes. As with the roof of the square hall, the six or eight hip rafters converge at the peak of the roof. In all cases the upper ends of the rafters are protected by a square, box-like cover called a *roban 露盤. A pyramidal roof on the top story of a pagoda normally has a finial *sourin 相輪, with the roban as a base. Square, hexagonal and octagonal structures have a precious jewel *houju 宝珠, decoration, varying from simple to quite elaborate, atop the roban.
An'youin 安養院 (Kanagawa)
An'youin 安養院 (Kanagawa)

*hougyou yane 宝形屋根

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