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yakuimon@–òˆã–å
CATEGORY:@architecture / gates
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A gate with a gable roof constructed with two square or rectangular main posts and two square or circular secondary posts *hikaebashira T’Œ, set to the rear. A heavy, horizontal beam *kabuki Š¥–Ø, is set into boat-shaped brackets *funahijiki M•I–Ø, also called *mebari ——À, and runs transversely on top of the main posts. Other beams *obari ’j—À, are placed on top of the boat-shaped brackets and fit over the kabuki by means of cogged joints *watariago “näG. These beams extend toward the inner side wall beyond the main posts, and their ends are supported by the secondary posts. They fill the role of a bracket *udegi ˜r–Ø. The eave purlins *nokigeta Œ¬Œ…, are supported by these extended transverse beams. The ridge is not set directly above the main pillars and the heavy, horizontal beam. Instead, struts *tsuka ‘©, are placed at the center of the obari and other diagonal struts *sasuzuka LŽñ‘©, are attached to them. Bearing blocks *masu “l, are positioned on top of these struts to carry the ridge *munagi “–Ø. The center struts may vary in shape: dry squid shape, surumezuka éƑ©; bottle-shaped struts *taiheizuka ‘¾•r‘©; plectrum-shaped struts *minozuka –¥‘©; or wooden frog-leg struts itakaerumata ”Âå¯ŒÒ (see *kaerumata 富Ò). The secondary posts are secured to the main posts by straight, short members which extend through the main pillars and through the secondary pillars. They are tighten by wedges, *kusabi ž¶. The upper member is called, hikaenuki TŠÑ, the lower one is called ashimoto hikaenuki ‘«–{TŠÑ. The roof is generally gabled *kirizuma yane ØÈ‰®ª, but on very rare occasions, it is a hip-and-gabled *irimoya yane “ü•ê‰®‰®ª style. Originally, the gate had no doors but extant examples have them. The use of this type of gate dates back to the late 14c or early 15c. According to the TEIKIN OURAI ’ëŒP‰—ˆ, the gate was used by doctors and patients and considered lower in rank than the *munamon “–å. By the Edo period, yakuimon were used as gates for samurai dwellings and on a larger scale 3 bays wide for noblemen's mansions. They were also used for castles. Examples include: Ten'onji Sanmon “V‰¶Ž›ŽR–å (mid-17c) in Aichi prefecture a 1-bay yakuimon with gable roof covered with finely layered shingles *kokerabuki Š`•˜; Koudaiji Omotemon ‚‘䎛•\–å, front gate (1610), in Kyoto. It is 3-bay yakuimon, with gable roof covered with tile, *hongawarabuki –{Š¢•˜.
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Ten'onji Sanmon “V‰¶Ž›ŽR–å (Aichi)
Ten'onji Sanmon “V‰¶Ž›ŽR–å (Aichi)

Ten'onji Sanmon “V‰¶Ž›ŽR–å (Aichi)

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REFERENCES:
*hikaebashira T’Œ
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