|KEY WORD : architecture / general terms|
| Also read to, sometimes written 枡. A box for measuring.
1 Any bearing block that is square or slightly rectangular. It is the fundamental component of a bracket complex *tokyou 斗きょう that supports a bracket arm *hijiki 肘木. There are many kinds of bearing blocks each named according to shape, size and position. The parts of a bearing block have a special nomenclature. The bottom of a bearing block is called tojiri 斗尻 or masujiri. This term can also include the lower part or base of the block. The largest bearing blocks *daito 大斗, are connected to the top of a pillar by a mortise *hozoana ほぞ穴, and tenon *hozo ほぞ. A curve is carved out of the base of the bearing block on each side slightly less than half its overall height. This concave curved part is called toguri 斗繰 or masuguri. If the daito is to support a single bracket arm set parallel to the wall plane, a channel running in the same direction as the bracket arm is carved out. The depth varies according to the size of the bracket arm. Variations can be loosely ascribed to different periods and styles. If bracket arms are set at a right angle to each other, channels are cut in four directions leaving blocks with square sections at each corner of the bearing block. The squares created by these channels are called *fukumi 含. When the bracket arms are set into a large bearing block, they carry brackets with arms that have smaller bearing blocks *makito 巻斗 mounted on them. If the middle bearing block supports additional bracket arms, it is called *houto 方斗 and is square or almost square. If five smaller bearing blocks are set on a single bracket arm, they are called *komasu 小斗. Sanbouto 三方斗, are bearing blocks, either square or rectangular, with an open side except for vertical protuberances at the corners. *Suteto 捨斗, although shaped like makito, do not carry a load. Okurido 送斗 are placed on top of a nosing *kibana 木鼻; *kentozuka 間斗束 are combination bearing blocks placed on top of a strut, between bracket complexes. *Nobito 延び斗 are longer and wider than makito, usually rectangular, and carry a corner bracket arm, *sumihijiki 隅肘木. *kikuto 菊斗 are placed on the outer end of a corner bracket arm and are larger than houto . In the 7-8c, a type of low flat plate bearing block sara-ita 皿板 or *sarato 皿斗 and daito were used. Although they give the impression of being two separate parts, they were hewn from a single piece of wood with toguri carved on all sides. This arrangement belongs to the style of architecture seen at the Houryuuji *Kondou 法隆寺金堂 (rebuilt 693) in Nara. However, during 16-19c, a bearing block similar to the sarato was used, but its shape was narrower, higher and had a rounded lip composing about one third of its total height. This is called hinerito 捻斗. If the cut side faces front it is sometimes called *koguchimasu 木口斗. *Kumoto 雲斗 (a cloud-patterned bearing block) has edges carved in undulating curves. Such bearing blocks are unique to Ikomagun 生駒郡, Ikarugachou 斑鳩町 (7c to early 8c), in Nara. This type of bearing block is found only at the ancient temples of Hourinji *Sanjuu-no-tou 法輪寺三重塔; Hokkiji Sanjuu-no-tou 法起寺三重塔; and Houryuuji Kondou, *Gojuu-no-tou 五重塔, and *Chuumon 中門. All are in close proximity to one another. The basic terms for measuring bearing blocks are tohaba koguchi 斗幅木口 for the width of the shorter side, and tohabataira 斗幅平 for the longer side. The height of the channel is called shikimensei 敷面せい and the height of the curved part is tojirisei 斗尻せい. The shorter sides of the base are tojirihaba koguchi 斗尻幅木口, the longer ones are tojirihabataira 斗尻幅平. The overall height is tosei 斗せい.
2 The term, masu is a unit of volume for timber i.e., 1 shaku 尺 × 1shaku ×10 shaku (30.3cm ×30.3cm ×303cm) .
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