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kouhai@Œő”w
CATEGORY:@art history / sculptures
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Halo found on Buddhist images, representing light said to be emitted by the Buddha *gokou ŒăŒő. In sculpture, a wooden or metal kouhai was attached to the back of the figure, sometimes decorated in openwork *sukashibori “§’¤. Kouhai were used in Japan from the Asuka period, usually made of bronze or gilt bronze, and were named according to their shape and design. One of the earliest examples is the halo on the Shaka sanzonzou Žß‰ŢŽO‘¸‘œ (623) in Houryuuji –@—˛Ž›, which is known as ikkou sanzon kouhai ˆęŒőŽO‘¸Œő”w (the single-light triad halo, see *ikkou sanon ˆęŒőŽO‘¸), because all three figures of the triad are enclosed in a single halo. The halo surrounds the figures completely *kyoshinkou ‹“gŒő and has a pointed top, giving it the name *funagata kouhai MŒ`Œő”w (the boat-shaped halo). Individual standing figures of the same period had round halos *enkou ‰~Œő as on the Four Heavenly Kings, Shitennou Žl“V‰¤ in Houryuuji *Kondou –@—˛Ž›‹ŕ“°, or jewel-shaped halos *houjugata kouhai •óŽěŒ`Œő”w, like that of the Kudara Kannonzou •SĎŠĎ‰š‘œ in Houryuuji Daihouzouden –@—˛Ž›‘ĺ•ó‘ “a. In the Tenpyou period, the double-round halo *nijuu-enkou “ńd‰~Œő became popular. A round head-nimbus *zukou “ŞŒő is attached to a round body-nimbus *shinkou gŒő, as on the Miroku Bosatsu –íčӕěŽF in Houryuuji Daihouzouden –@—˛Ž›‘ĺ•ó‘ “a. Halos decorated with Chinese foliage design *karakusamon “‚‘•ś and a thousand miniature buddhas senbutsu kouhai ç•§Œő”w were also produced in the Tenpyou period. A good example is *Rushanabutsu Ḏɓߕ§ (779) in Toushoudaiji “‚ľ’玛, Nara. In the Heian period halos with a decorated base *koukyaku Œő‹r became popular. *Ten “V and *Myouou –ž‰¤ figures had halos with flame designs *kaen kouhai ‰Î‰‹Œő”w. The earliest examples of wooden halos *itakouhai ”ÂŒő”w date from the late 9c, and these were often painted with flames, karakusamon, and small manifestations of buddha *kebutsu ‰ť•§, as on the Shaka ryuuzou Žß‰Ţ—§‘œ in Murouji ŽşśŽ›, Nara. In the 12c nijuu enkou were surrounded by a large outer boat-shaped halo of openwork flying apsaras figures *hiten kouhai ”ň“VŒő”w. The model for this style was the Amida Nyoraizazou ˆ˘–í‘É”@—ˆż‘œ (1053) by Jouchou ’č’Š in Byoudouin •˝“™‰@, Kyoto. Other styles characteristic of the late Heian period were the single free-standing ring *rinkou —ÖŒő like that of the *Kichijouten ‹gË“V in Joururiji ň—Ú—žŽ›, Kyoto, a halo with radiating spokes like a wheel, houshagata kouhai •úŽËŒ`Œő”w, seen on the Amida Nyoraizou in Kanzeonji ŠĎ˘‰šŽ›, Fukuoka prefecture; and the *mibu kouhai pśŒő”w named after the Jizou Bosatsu ’n‘ •ěŽF in Mibudera pśŽ›, Kyoto (now lost). In the Kamakura period various designs of kouhai with openwork decoration continued to be produced, as well as halos decorated with small figures representings the followers of Buddha *kenzoku áőŽ, as on the central Senju Kannon çŽčŠĎ‰š in Rengeouin ˜@‰Ř‰¤‰@, Kyoto. Another form of halo called *ensoukou ‰~‘ŠŒő enclosed the nijuu ensou in a large outer circle, often seen on Aizen Myouou ˆ¤ő–ž‰¤ figures (1247), for example in Saidaiji ź‘厛, Nara.
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