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bugakumen@y
KEY WORD :@art history / sculptures
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Masks worn when performing certain of the *bugaku y dances developed from pieces imported from the Asian continent during the 6c and 7c and accompanying imperial court music, gagaku y. The majority of extant masks date from the 11c to 13c, although some good copies were made during the Edo period. In size and expression, bugakumen stand midway between the large, foreign-looking gigaku masks *gigakumen y, of the Nara period and the smaller, more delicately modeled masks of noh drama *noumen \ of the 14c to 19c. The largest of the bugakumen, like the *Ni-no-mai m masks housed in Itsukushima Jinja _ (H29.8cm, W21.9cm, D16.1cm), Hiroshima prefecture, cover the crown of the head and ears, but smaller masks, such as *Ayakiri and *Korobase Ĕ, approach human proportions (approximately H19cm, W16cm, D10cm) and cover only the facial area. Just as dances of the Left sa-no-mai , and dances of the Right u-no-mai E, are performed alternately in pairs, the masks are paired as the themes of each dance in a pair tend to be related. The masks for the quiet dances hiramai , tend to have gentle expressions, to be smaller in size and simple in construction, but the masks for the military dances bu-no-mai , and dynamic dances hashirimai , are large in scale. Characteristic of many masks used for energetic dances are their realistic highlights, such as animal hair affixed to represent eyebrows or mustaches and the mechanical or moveable parts including rotating eyes *dougan ; dangling chin *tsuriago ݊{; detached chins *kiriago ؊{; or movable face plates *doubou e. Other surrealistic effects on some bugakumen are achieved with swinging noses and rope hair. The more elaborate construction is something bugakumen share with the much later puppet heads used in the bunraku y theater. With the exception of one extant dry lacquer *kanshitsu , mask of *Ryouou ˉ from about the 8c in the Fujita c Art Museum, Osaka, all known bugaku masks are carved from wood, commonly cypress hinoki w, or paulownia kiri , although other woods sometimes are used. In general, the masks are of one piece, but a number have been assembled from smaller units, often split along the grain and rehinged to reduce distortion due to wear and humidity changes. Sometimes the wood grains of various parts are set against each other. The most meticulous finishing involves painting the carved wood support, front, and back with a ground *kataji dn, generally of *sabi-urushi K (i.e., lacquer mixed with a kind of clay *tonoko u̕) that makes a hard, smooth surface. Sometimes this is further solidified by a layer of cloth held down by lacquer, which is a technique derived from dry lacquer sculpture. The masks are then painted with kaolin *hakudo y, and colored with earth (mineral) pigments. Most masks with finishing of this sort date from the 12c or 13c, the height of bugakumen production. Sometimes artists dispense with the kaolin coat and color the lacquer to serve as the outer coating. In later masks, mostly those from the Muromachi period and those produced in provincial or country workshops, the lacquer is painted directly on the wood in a technique close to that used for noumen. Extant bugakumen can be divided into two distinct types: those of orthodox form found in temples or shrines connected with the court during the Nara and Heian periods, and provincial variations produced from the Kamakura period on and often made by amateur carvers influenced by other performing traditions. The largest number of orthodox, old bugaku masks belong to Houryuuji @, Toudaiji 厛, Tamukeyama Jinja R_, and Kasuga Taisha t in Nara, as well as Shitennouji lV and Sumiyoshi Taisha Zg in Osaka. Itsukushima Jinja, which is located south of Hiroshima prefecture, and Atsuta Jinguu Mc_{ in Aichi prefecture also have good collections, as does the Tokyo National Museum. At least some of the old masks seem to have been produced in sets. For example, all those housed at Tamukeyama Jinja and dated 1042 share a basic style and simplified painting technique in which kaolin was applied directly to the unfinished wood and the back left untouched. The majority of the bugakumen are unsigned. From those that do bear an inscription, including the name of the carver, we know that they were made for the most part by professional sculptors of Buddhist statues *busshi t, notably by Jouchou 蒩 (?-1057; see *Jouchouyou 蒩l) and members of the Kei school *Keiha ch, including Unkei ^c (?-1223) and Joukei c (late 12c-early 13c) whose 1148 *Sanju U mask at Kasuga Taisha shows exceptional realism and plasticity. Shamon Gyoumyou s (second half of 12c), who worked for the Taira clan, made a number of masks for Itsukushima Jinja. Other bugaku mask carvers include Inshou , Inken @, and Shigisan Gyouen MMRs~. Extant bugakumen include: quiet masks for hiramai ; *Shintoriso Vh, *Chikyuu nv, *Taishoutoku ޏh and Shinshoutoku ih, *Ouintei cm, Korobase, Ayakiri, *Kotokuraku ӓy, *Ama Ė, Ni-no-mai (emimen , haremen ), *Saisourou ̌KV, *Soriko h. Military masks for bu-no-mai ; *Shinnou `, Sanju, *Kitoku M. Miscellaneous masks ;*Tendou V, *Shishi tq, *Somakusha h, *Bosatsu F, and *Sessen ΐ. Dynamic masks for hashirimai ; *Konju ӈ, *Batou , *Genjouraku ҏy, Ryouou, and *Nasori []. For early illustrations of masks in use.
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REFERENCES:
*bugaku-zu y}
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