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agedo@g
KEY WORD :@architecture / folk dwellings
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Lit. push-up door. A variety of upward-opening door or shutter used during the Edo period in urban merchant and artisan houses *machiya . Agedo were developed to allow the front of the machiya, which typically abutted the street and functioned as a shop *mise X, to be opened up during the day and closed at night. There are two main types: 1) vertically sliding shutters and 2) top-hinged shutters. The vertically sliding shutters are referred to also as suriagedo グ or, in Fukuoka prefecture, oshiagedo グ. These shutters were constructed in vertical slots formed in the sides of the posts supporting the structural bay in which they were set. Each shutter extended the full width of the bay, and there were usually two or sometimes three shutters to a bay, mounted one above the other. When closed they could be locked in place from the inside with a wooden peg. The shutters were opened by sliding them upwards one after another and they were stowed on a shelf, usually built on the top surface of a stout lintel beam *douzashi or sashimono . A pocket which functioned as a vertical shutter box *tobukuro ˑ, was created within the wall, and rendered invisible on the outer wall face. To reduce obstructions at the front of the shop, more complete, heavy lintels often were used to create a double-width, 2*ken , structural bay with a detachable post inserted midway to attach the agedo when closed, but removable when opened. A fine example of agedo used in combination with a detachable post is the shopfront of the late 17c Wachuusan Honjin aU{w in Shiga prefecture. Another example, the Kometani ĒJ house in Imaichou 䒬, Nara, illustrates a similar system that also could be used to close the shop to the earth-floored passage *tooriniwa ʂ, within the house. The second type of agedo is a top-hinged shutter, also referred to as tsuriagedo ݂g, tsurishitomi ݂, or ageshitomi g. Essentially a form of hinged shutter *shitomido . Judging from early illustrations, such as the "Illustrated Handscroll of the Legends of Mt. Shigi" Shigisan engi emaki MMRNG, hinged shutters had been used in urban houses, machiya, since at least the 12c. However, while most Edo period examples open inwards, these illustrated examples opened outwards, and were supported when open by stout metal hoods tsurikanagu ݋, suspended from the floor joists of the lofts above. Top-hinged shutters were used not only at the front of the shop, but also for the main entry *oodo , to the earth-floored area *doma y, especially in cases where the width of the front part of the earth floor was too narrow for a conventional, horizontally sliding entrance. Examples of this kind of agedo are numerous among the traditional town houses of Takayama R, Gifu prefecture. When used for a main entrance, the agedo is a single leaf door, usually solid, but occasionally latticed, often with an inset wicket door *kugurido , like many conventional entrances. When used at the front of the shop, it might be either of solid or latticework construction. It often consists of two or three leaves with hinged joints, allowing the individual leaves to be folded in upon each other compactly, and raised without projecting far into the room. Composite types in which the lower panel can be removed by sliding it out vertically also exist. Only the upper panels are hinged shutters.
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Kometani ĒJ house (Nara)


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