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tooriniwa@ ’Ê‚è’ë
KEY WORD :@architecture / folk dwellings
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An earthfloored area *doma “yŠÔ or *niwa ’ë, which provided access from the front of the house to the rear of the plot in vernacular houses *minka –¯‰Æ of the Edo period. The division of the house into an earthfloored area on one side of the plan and an area of living rooms, kyoshitsubu ‹Žº•”, with a raised timber floor on the other was a fundamental principle of minka planning. The tooriniwa, however, was associated particularly with the urban vernacular houses of artisans and retailers *machiya ’¬‰Æ, which usually abutted the street directly and often occupied the entire frontage *maguchi ŠÔŒû, of urban lots that were typically narrow but deep. Under such circumstances, the doma itself became a passage, toori ’Ê‚è or tsuuro ’ʘH, providing the only means of access from the front street to the warehouses, workshops, rented row houses *nagaya ’·‰® etc, that occupied the rear of the plot. It was sometimes subdivided by one or more partitions containing intermediate doors *nakado ’†ŒË. This created separate zones, usually a retail zone *miseniwa “X’ë, at the front and a domestic service zone okuniwa ‰œ’ë, at the rear. The miseniwa generally had a loft *tsushi nikai ~Žq“ñŠK, over it, but the okuniwa was usually open to the rafters fukinuke ”²‚¯, with a louvre *kemuridashi ‰Œo, either on the roof or high in the walls for the smoke from the cooking range *kamado Š–, to escape. Originally, the tooriniwa was a dark space. By the latter half of Edo period, the smoke louvres doubled as high-level windows. Later still, windows were added as were rooflights tenmado “V‘‹, improving the lighting conditions not only of the tooriniwa itself, but also of the living rooms at the center of the house. The term is mainly associated with the machiya of Kyoto, but was also used in other districts, particularly in Chuubu ’†•” and Touhoku “Œ–k. Alternatively referred to as tooridoma ’Ê‚è“yŠÔ, toori, and *roji ˜I’n.
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Old Nakamura ՠԼ house (Nagano)

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NOTES
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