tsumakazari 妻飾
KEY WORD : architecture / general terms
The embellishment of gable pediments *tsuma 妻, by exposed structural members that were part of the overall system of roof construction when interior roof elements were open to the underside of the roof *keshou yaneura 化粧屋根裏. The term includes the ornamentation not dependent upon structure, that was applied to the gable pediments when ceilings, tenjou 天井, became common and the hidden roof construction *noyane 野屋根, was erected over either the core of the building *moya 母屋, or over the entire structure, including the surrounding aisles *hisashi 廂. This change to the installation of ceilings occurred in the last decade of the 10c.
Typical types of decorative effects in the gable pediment are: *inokosasu 豕扠首 (diagonal struts with center post); tateyokoshiki 竪横式 (a system of vertical and horizontal lattice placed at desired intervals); *kouryou kaerumata 虹梁蟇股 (a system of ornamentation with rainbow beams and frog-leg struts); *nijuukouryou kaerumata 二重虹梁蟇股 (a system of two rainbow beams and frog-leg struts); nijuukouryou taiheizuka 二重虹梁大瓶束 (a system of two rainbow beams with bottle struts); *kitsunegoushi 狐格子 (latticework). From the Momoyana period to the end of the Edo period, the decoration in the gables, especially of hip-and-gable roofs *irimoya yane 入母屋屋根, was extremely complex. Gables were large allowing a variety of decorative motifs to be combined with bracket complexes *tokyou 斗きょう, rainbow beams, frog-leg struts, and bottle struts.

a) sasuzuka 叉首束 b) sasuzao 叉首竿
Houryuuji Shouryouin 法隆寺精霊院 (Nara)

*kouryou taiheizuka 虹梁大瓶束, *oigata taiheizuka 笈形大瓶束, *kouzama 格狭間, *katoumado 火灯窓, *yuiwata 結綿

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