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kouzama@i
KEY WORD :@architecture /general terms ; art history / sculptures
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Also written , and abbreviated to *sama . Formerly called *geshou or genjou . A foliate panel; foiled spandrel. A decorative motif which is curved like a bowl at the base, and made up of a series of flame-like curves at the top. These curves are known as multifoil, tayoukei t` or *katou kyokusen ΓȐ. The kouzama is used on a variety of fittings including: desks tsukue ; the sides or middle panels of Buddhist altars *shumidan {d; dew basins *roban I; the pedestals dai , of lanterns *tourou ; pagodas *houtou ; edged panel doors *sangarado V; and sometimes wall surfaces hekimen ǖ and lion-mouth roof tiles *shishiguchi q. The pattern is often carved on the panels of a coffer or on wooden sidings, hame H, divided by posts and framework. It is thought to have developed from the decorative curved legs geshou, used on a Buddhist platform, but its origins are not certain. The earliest extant examples date from the Nara period, and kouzama were used in every subsequent period until the 19c. Because the form of the curved design changed distinctly from one period to another, kouzama are used by architectural historians as a yardstick to judge the age of fittings and buildings. A type of kouzama known as koumorigata 啌` (bat shape) appeared in the Kamakura period. Many other variations are classified according to shape, for example the floral-type *hanazama ԋ, the 'thick' design shigezama ɋ, and the 'sparse' version *sudarezama .
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