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sukiya-zukuri@”Šñ‰®‘¢
CATEGORY:@architecture / general terms
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A variation of the *shoin ‘‰@ residenceG a mansion or a country house for the aristocracy or samurai Ž˜ after the beginning of the Edo period. Representative examples include: Katsura Rikyuu Œj—£‹{ (mid 17c); Manjuin Koshoin ™ÖŽì‰@¬‘‰@ (mid 17c), and Nishihonganji Kuroshoin ¼–{ŠèŽ›•‘‰@ (late 16c), all in Kyoto. Common features of the above examples are the freedom to make the architectural design based on the decorative alcove *tokonoma °‚ÌŠÔ and shelf *tana ’I of the shoin system and to use not only Japanese cypress but also Japanese cedar, pine, hemlock and bamboo. Sukiya-zukuri also featured many logs and bark surfaces menkawa –Ê”ç. Visible timbers were colored greyish-black in some early sukiya buildings, but later most timbers were left unpainted with a natural surface. Earthen walls were muted in color, and slopes of roofs were cambered. The above-mentioned characteristics suggest that sukiya-zukuri is related to the tea ceremony house. However, the freedom recognized in sukiya-zukuri also extends to the ornamentation of shelves *tana ’I and friezes *ranma —“ŠÔ which used irregular shapes, and to the innovative forms of metallic ornaments like nail covers *kugikakushi “B‰B‚µ and door catches *hikite ˆø‚«Žè on sliding doors fusumashouji ‰¦áŽq. Special importance was given to the shelves: the wall surrounding them was often only covered with paper, but earthen walls were common too. Shelves themselves, as well as the doors on closets and closed shelves *fukurodana ‘Ü’I were made of rare imported timbers, with metallic ornaments, delicate carvings and openwork. The splendid effect was quite opposite to the tea ceremony house in which concentration on one point is important. Therefore it is obvious that sukiya-zukuri was not only influenced by tea ceremony architecture *chashitsu ’ƒŽº, but developed in a spirit of free diversion interacting with the Imperial Court in the 17c.
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