|KEY WORD : architecture / buildings & structures|
| 1 Lecture
hall in a Buddhist temple. In the Nara and Heian periods, it was
one of the principal buildings in the monastic complex. Usually located
behind the sacred precinct or behind the main hall, called *kondou
金堂 or *hondou 本堂. In
mountain temples where the terrain was rugged, the koudou was often
erected in front of the main hall where it became the central facility of
the temple compound. Originally, it was the center for teaching the sutras,
kyou 経, rituals, and required behavior for general meetings, entertainments,
and for penitential ceremonies. There is some evidence that it may have
served occasionally as a refectory. Thus, the koudou was a large
building that before the Heian period was seven or eight bays
by four bays, and even larger by the end of the 10c. For example, the *Daikoudou
大講堂( rebuilt in 990) at Houryuuji 法隆寺, was 9 x 4 bays; the Koudou (8c) at Toushoudaiji
唐招提寺, was 9 x 4 bays both in Nara; and the Koudou (1410) at Kyouougokokuji
教王護国寺 in Kyoto, was 9 x 4 bays; the Koudou (1303) at Taimadera 当麻寺 in Nara, was 7 x 4 bays. In temples of the Zen
禅 sect, introduced in the 11c-12c, the term *hattou
法堂 was used instead of koudou. It served as a lecture hall and was
erected behind the *butsuden
仏殿. Compared to the kondou, the koudou had simple bracket
complexes placed on large bearing blocks and 3-on-1 non-projecting bracket
complexes that were parallel to the wall. Inside the altar filled a single
bay and the remaining space had only an earthen floor. On each side of the
Buddhist altar were high seats for lecturers, or readers of the sutras.
The priests sat on wooden benches while listening to the lectures.
2 The term koudou, was also used to reger to schools where young males were educated. Such schools were either feudal clan or goverment schools. The Shizutani 閑谷 School (1701) in Okayama prefecture, is one example.
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