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hachiman-zukuri@
CATEGORY:@architecture / shrines
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A style of shrine architecture characterized by a structure which from the side-view gives the impression of two separate buildings with parallel ridges placed one behind the other, each with its own gable roof *kirizuma yane ؍ȉ. A rain gutter *toi , joins the eaves of the two roofs. The space that results between the two buildings is enclosed to form a 1-bay deep room *ai-no-ma ̊. The width of this intermediate space varies from shrine to shrine as does the height of the floor. Generally, the rear building is 3 X 2 bays and the front one 3 X 1 bays. The entrances are placed in the central bays of each building and the step canopy *kouhai q, is extended over the stairs of the front building. The rear building is the principal sanctuary and is usually called *honden {a although it may also be called naiden a, *naijin w or *shouden a. The front building is called *haiden qa, *gejin Ow or geden Oa. The twin halls *narabidou o, may have been associated with Buddhist architecture which had a *shoudou and worship hall *raidou 瓰, at the back and front of the building respectively. However, shrine halls of this type are not open for use even to ordinary priests as both are occupied only by the deity, kami _. At the Usa Hachimanguu F{, Ooita prefecture and Iwashimizu Hachimanguu ΐ{, Kyoto, the front area has a chair and the rear area has a raised curtained dais, michou 䒠 or choudai . This furniture is of Heian vintage. Daises were used in the bedroom and chairs were used in the room used during the daytime. It is presumed by some scholars that since such expressions as dedono oa (departure hall) referred to the front area in the twin hall type shrine the kami could change easily from the rear to front hall and return at will. The use of latticed-mounted board doors *shitomido , on the front, double-leaf doors *tsumado Ȍ on the gable side at each end of the ai-no-ma, and simple boat-shaped brackets *funahijiki MI, in hachiman style shrine buildings, strongly suggests a close relationship with the Heian period aristocratic style dwellings *shinden-zukuri Qa. Another possible source for the hachiman-zukuri might have been drawn from the parallel double ridges known to have existed in early palace architecture. The earliest extant buildings in this style date from the Edo period, and only five survive. Examples: Usa Hachimanguu Honden and Haiden ; Iwashimizu Hachimanguu Honden and Haiden ; Ima Hachimanguu { Honden and Haiden, Yamaguchi prefecture.
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