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Fudou Myouou @•s“®–¾‰¤
KEY WORD :@art history / iconography
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The chief of the five great myouou *godai myouou ŒÜ‘å–¾‰¤, Fudou has been, and still is, one of the most popular deities in Japan, shown in paintings and sculptures in temples and also in outdoor images that range from ancient stone sculptures to modern pseudo-bronze fiberglass. Propitiated throughout all levels of society, from the emperor to common people, and in Shugendou CŒ±“¹ mountain asceticism and folk religion as well as in esoteric Shingon ^Œ¾ and Tendai “V‘ä Buddhism, he is also a fully naturalized Buddhist deity susceptible to mixed Shinto and Buddhist worship (see *Shintou bijutsu _“¹”üp). He is the representative of *Dainichi ‘å“ú, who appears in a fierce form and protects and aids those engaged in esoteric practice, eliminating hindrances, vanquishing evil spirits, and thus allowing the practice to be completed. He is the most important principal image *honzon –{‘¸ of goma Œì–€, a fire ceremony (see below). His name appears first in the FUKUUKENJAKU JINPEN SHINGONKYOU •s‹ó㮍õ_•Ï^Œ¾Œo, translated by Bodhiruci (Jp: Bodairushi •ì’ñ—¬Žu) in 709. He is portrayed on the north side of a Kannon mandara ŠÏ‰¹™Ö䶗… that has *Shaka Žß‰Þ in the center. He holds a noose and a sword. In the DAINICHIKYOU ‘å“úŒo, translated by Shanwuwei (Jp: Zenmui ‘P–³ˆØ, Sk:Subhakarasimha, 637-735) in 725, his name appears as Fudou and Mudou –³“®, both serving to translate the Sanskrit Acalanatha, (the unmoving guardian), one of the epithets of the Hindu deity Siva. He is described as having the body of a youth, a feature that distinguishes him from many other deities. He appears in the Jimyouin Ž–¾‰@ (Godai-in ŒÜ‘å‰@) of the Womb World Mandala *Taizoukai mandara ‘Ù‘ ŠE™Ö䶗….
The title Myouou was added to his name in a commentary on the DAINICHIKYOU by I-hsing (Jp: Ichigyou ˆês; 683-727). He begins to appear in texts as an independent deity slightly later. Although it is certain that Fudou is of Indian origin, there are no extant early Indian images. There are a few 8c images from China, including a 709 stone relief sculpture now in the Field Museum in Chicago. There are later images from Tibet and India. In Japan Fudou was enshrined as one of the godai myouou in rituals to safeguard the nation in the early Heian period. In later times he continued to be addressed in public ritual on occasions of national difficulty, such as the Mongol invasion in the 13c, and internal rebellion. From the end of the Heian and during the Kamakura period belief in Fudou spread gradually to include warriors and the common people. With the rise of interest in paradises, he appears in stories aiding people in their desire to be reborn in paradise and coming to rescue them in hell, all common activities of many deities at this time. Fudou was included among the Thirteen Buddhas *juusanbutsu \ŽO•§ and was given a day on which he was honored. The development of interest in Fudou was also linked to the growth of mountain asceticism. The appearance of Fudou follows various strands, which can be separated into two stages, one consisting of early iconography brought back from China in the 9c by *Kuukai ‹óŠC (774-835), Ennin ‰~m (794-864) and Enchin ‰~’¿ (814-891), and the other brought back in the late 9c and early 10c by Annen ˆÀ‘R (ca. 841-89 and 898) of the Hieizan Godai-in ”ä‰bŽRŒÜ‘å‰@ and Shunnyu ~—S (890-953) of Ishiyamadera ÎŽRŽ›. His iconography was divided into 19 aspects. In spite of there being subtle differences in his form, Fudou is always recognizable. The chief characteristic of the early Fudou iconography is that both eyes should be open, and two upper teeth should protrude over his lower lip. The paintings of the Kifudou ‰©•s“® (Yellow Fudou, see below), however, show two lower teeth protruding over his upper lip. Later iconography has one upper tooth going up and another going down . The oldest image of Fudou is the one in the lecture hall *Koudou u“° of Touji “ŒŽ› (Kyouougokokuji ‹³‰¤Œì‘Ž›), in Kyoto. It shows Fudou seated on his typical dias made of blocks in the shape of Mt. Sumeru *shitsushitsuza àìXÀ, with a halo of fire *kaen kouhai ‰Î‰‹Œõ”w, behind him. He holds a sword in his right hand and a noose in his left hand. Unlike other fierce figures, his hair is gathered at one side (this may differ in a few images). As in most images of Fudou he has a rather heavy physique. The many important images of Fudou apart from those included in sets of the godai myouou, include the 1006 sculpture in Douju-in “¯ãډ@ in Toufukuji “Œ•ŸŽ›, Kyoto. It is thought to have been the central image of the Godai Myouou of the Godaidou ŒÜ‘å“° of Hosshouji –@«Ž›, dedicated by Fujiwara Michinaga “¡Œ´“¹’· (966-1027) in 1006. There are also the late Heian Fudou of Dairin-in ‘å—щ@, one of the halls of Enryakuji ‰„— in Shiga prefecture, and the late Heian images of the Kongoubuji *Fudoudou ‹à„•õŽ›•s“®“° on Mt. Kouya ‚–ì, Wakayama prefecture This Fudou built in 1198, was moved to its present position in 1908 from elsewhere on Mt. Kouya, while the Fudou sculpture is said to be the work of the hall founder, the monk Gyoushou sŸ (1130-1217). The image is accompanied by images of the Eight Great Child Attendants *hachidai douji ”ª‘哶Žq, who serve Fudou dated 1198 (two are later) and made by Unkei ‰^Œc (? - 1223). Among paintings there are a number of special images of Fudou such as the Kifudou, which shows the appearance of the deity as he appeared to Enchin in 838 during meditation. Although the original is a secret image at Miidera ŽOˆäŽ› (also called Onjouji ‰€éŽ›), Shiga prefecture, there are a number of copies, the oldest of which is the late Heian period painting in Manshu-in ™ÖŽê‰@ in Kyoto. The golden color departs from iconographic descriptions of Fudou as blue-black in color. The heavily muscled physique is also unusual, for Fudou's body usually looks exceptionally smooth. The Akafudou Ô•s“® (Red Fudou) of Myououin –¾‰¤‰@ on Mt. Kouya holds a sword with the dragon Kurikara ‹ä—˜‰Þ—… wound around it. He sits on a rock, accompanied by *Seitaka douji §‚½‰Þ“¶Žq and *Kongara douji áà㹗…“¶Žq. Although Fudou may appear alone, his usual attendants are Seitaka and Kongara douji, and he may be accompanied by eight child attendants. Thirty-six attendants are often listed in his rituals, and a Nanbokuchou period painting of Houkouji •óŒõŽ› in Okayama prefecture, shows him with 49 attendants. Unusual images include the painting of Fudou and his two attendants called Hashirifudou ‘–‚è•s“® (Running Fudou, late Kamakura period) an unusual departure for a deity whose name means unmoving. The late Heian, Takayama Fudou ‚ŽR•s“® of Jouraku-in íŠy‰@ in Saitama prefecture is not actually Fudou in iconography but *Gundari Myouou ŒR䶗˜–¾‰¤. Revered as Fudou at this ascetic site, it was probably locally made and is roughly, simply, and powerfully carved. Fudou may also appear in *mandara ™Ö䶗… such as that based upon the NINNOUGYOU stutra *Ninnougyou mandara m‰¤Œo™Ö䶗…. Drawings of Fudou are well-known. These tend to be copies, several steps removed, of the work of earlier artists. For example, a late Heian to early Kamakura periods drawing of Fudou accompanied by *Bishamonten ”ù¹–å“V, Kurikara and the two child attendants is in Entsuuji ‰~’ÊŽ› on Mt. Kouya. It is thought to show the style of Genchou Œº’©, a monk of Gangouji Œ³‹»Ž› in Nara (fl. second half of 10c), and thought responsible for certain features of iconography, and that of Enjin ‰~S (fl. in the second half 11c). A drawing in Ishiyamadera ÎŽRŽ› again shows the style of Genchou and, according to the inscription, was copied by Jouchi ’è’q (fl. 12c). A large number of such drawings are found in Daigoji ‘çŒíŽ›, Kyoto, including the most famous, a 1282 drawing by Shinkai MŠC that shows Fudou standing on a rock rising from the sea. Kurikara, a dragon wound around a sword, may appear in paintings of Fudou or alone as a substitute for Fudou sculptures of both Kurikara and Fudou are often found near ascetic practice places, such as small waterfalls. The significance of Fudou is due not only to his being a transformation of Dainichi, but also in large part to his role as a honzon for goma, a fire ceremony still popular today in which defilements are symbolically burnt. Goma (Sk: homa) was and is still performed in Hinduism. Although goma can be performed for many deities, of the three major ones --- Dainichi, *Nyoirin Kannon ”@ˆÓ—֊ω¹ and Fudou --- Fudou is felt to be particularly appropriate because he is continually occupied in a fire meditation in which all hindrances are burned up by knowledge. Goma is usually performed with the intent of tranquility and harmony, although it can have other purposes. A small goma may be performed by a devotee or by a priest in a hall, while a large outdoor goma called saitou goma Ì“•Œì–€ (also written ŽÄ“•Œì–€) is performed by mountain practitioners yamabushi ŽR•š as an esoteric ceremony. Goma is still also performed at Touji for the imperial ritual of the goshichinichi-no-mishuhou ŒãŽµ“úŒäC–@ .
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