@
Taizoukai mandara@‘Ω‘ ŠE™ΦδΆ—…
KEY WORD :@art history / iconography
@
A *mandara ™ΦδΆ—… based on the DAINICHIKYOU ‘ε“ϊŒo (Sk:Vairocanabhisambodhi sutra/Mahavairocana Sutra; Taishou No. 848). Its proper name is Daihitaizoushou mandara ‘ε”ί‘Ω‘ Ά™ΦδΆ—… (mandara born of the womb of great compassion). Since the original Sanskrit text of the DAINICHIKYOU has not been discovered, the Sanskrit equivalent of "taizou" remains unclear, but it is thought to be "garbha," signifying "womb" or "embryo". This mandara is one of the two mandara forming the *Ryoukai mandara —ΌŠE™ΦδΆ—…, the other being the *Kongoukai mandara ‹ΰ„ŠE™ΦδΆ—…, and in Japan it thus came to be generally known as the Taizoukai mandara. Forms of the mandara of the DAINICHIKYOU predating the *Genzu mandara Œ»}™ΦδΆ—…, such as the *Taizou zuzou ‘Ω‘ }‘œ and *Taizou kyuuzuyou ‘Ω‘ ‹Œ}—l, should therefore be referred to simply as Taizoukai mandara. The Taizou mandara ‘Ω‘ ™ΦδΆ—… was introduced to China by Shanwuwei (Jp: Zenmui ‘P–³ˆΨ, Sk: Subhakarasimha; 637-735), who translated the DAINICHIKYOU into Chinese. The composition of the Taizou mandara as transmitted by Shanwuwei may be inferred from a diagram showing only the positions of the deities contained in the commentary on the DAINICHIKYOU by Shanwuwei and his disciple Yixing (Jp: Ichigyou ˆκs; 683-727), from the Taizou zuzou preserved in line drawing *hakubyou ”’•`, and from the Daihitaizou sanmaya mandara ‘ε”ί‘Ω‘ ŽO–†–λ™ΦδΆ—… in which the deities are represented by means of symbolic objects (see *sanmaya mandara ŽO–†–λ™ΦδΆ—…), and it differed considerably from the Taizoukai mandara as we know it today. At the same time, Jingangzhi (Jp: Kongouchi ‹ΰ„’q, Sk: Vajrabodhi; 671-741) and Bukong (Jp: Fukuu •s‹σ; Sk: Amoghavajra; 705-74), who introduced to China a form of Esoteric Buddhism mikkyou –§‹³ centered on the KONGOUCHOUKYOU ‹ΰ„’ΈŒo (Diamond Peak Sutra; Sk: Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha; Taishou Nos. 865, 882), transmitted a different form of Taizou mandara, corresponding to the Taizou kyuuzuyou. It has fewer deities than the Taizou zuzou, but its symmetry and other features reflect efforts to enhance its qualities as a religious painting.
The above two traditions of the Taizou mandara were integrated by Huiguo (Jp:Keika Œb‰Κ; 746-805), under whom *Kuukai ‹σŠC (774-835) studied in China, resulting in the Genzu mandara. Its composition varies somewhat in the different versions, but it consists of approximately 414 deities systematically arranged in 12 sections called Chuudai hachiyouin ’†‘δ”ͺ—t‰@, Henchi-in •Υ’m‰@, Jimyou-in Ž–Ύ‰@, Rengebu-in ˜@‰Ψ•”‰@, Kongoushu-in ‹ΰ„Žθ‰@, Shaka-in Žί‰ή‰@, Kokuuzou-in ‹•‹σ‘ ‰@, Monju-in •ΆŽκ‰@, Soshitsuji-in/Soshitchi-in ‘hŽ»’n‰@, Jizou-in ’n‘ ‰@, Jogaishou-in œŠWα‰@ and Gekongoubu-in ŠO‹ΰ„•”‰@; compared with the approximately 120 deities mentioned in the DAINICHIKYOU, this represents a more than threefold increase in the number of deities, and it may be said to represent the final stage in the development of the Taizou mandara, which evolved from the mandara of the DAINICHIKYOU via the Taizou zuzou and Taizou kyuuzuyou into the Genzu mandara. In addition, polychrome versions of the Taizou mandara were brought to Japan by Ennin ‰~m (794-864), Enchin ‰~’Ώ (814-91) and others, and although they exhibit minor differences in detail when compared with the Genzu mandara introduced by Kuukai, there are no major differences in their basic composition and they are thought to belong to the traditions of the Genzu mandara in a broad sense. As a result of the subsequent decline of Esoteric Buddhism in China no further copies of the Taizou mandara were brought to Japan, and the Taizoukai mandara as represented by the Genzu mandara has continued to be produced in both the Shingon ^ŒΎ and Tendai “V‘δ sects down to the present day.
@
@

@
REFERENCES:
@
EXTERNAL LINKS: 
@@
NOTES
@

(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
ŒfΪ‚ΜƒeƒLƒXƒgEŽΚ^EƒCƒ‰ƒXƒg‚ȂǁA‘S‚Δ‚ΜƒRƒ“ƒeƒ“ƒc‚Μ–³’f•‘»E“]Ϊ‚π‹Φ‚Ά‚ά‚·B
@