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fudoudou@•s“®“°
KEY WORD :@architecture / buildings & structures
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A hall in a Buddhist temple dedicated to the deity *Fudou Myouou •s“®–¾‰¤ (Sk. Acalanatha or abbreviated to Acala), one of the five divinities *godai myouou ŒÜ‘å–¾‰¤ who protects Buddhism. He is also courier for@*Dainichi ‘å“ú, the Buddha central to the Shingon ^Œ¾ sect. Fudou can be identified by his ferocious demeanor; he holds a sword in his right hand and a rope in his left. During the Heian period, when the Esoteric Buddhism mikkyou –§‹³, of Buddhism were introduced to Japan and became popular with the elite, they built temple halls with strong overtones of the aristocratic style of private dwelling. Many of the high ranking priests who came from the imperial family or other noble families expected living quarters similar to those to which they were accustomed. Many were built at branch temples close to large mikkyou temples. This custom continued throughout the medieval period. Example: Kongoubuji Fudodou ‹à„•õŽ›•s“®“° (end 12c - early 13c.) Wakayama prefecture. Overall it is 5 x 4 bays but the temple hall, itself, is 3 x 4 bays. Facing the hall from the front on the left side is a 1-bay wide aisle-like area tsurihisashi ’Þ›ù that is enclosed along the two central bays. On the right side is a 1-bay wide tsurihisashi that is enclosed along the center 2-bays and an additional bay that extends to the rear of the structure. These tsurihisashi for the space for narrow rooms on each side. The roof is the hip-and-gable type *irimoya-zukuri “ü•ê‰®‘¢, with an extended eave *sugaruhafu ãv”j•—, over the veranda *engawa ‰‘¤. The bracket complexes are the right angled 3-on-1 type *demitsudo oŽO“l, with frog-leg-struts *kaerumata 富Ò, in the interstices between the bracket complexes. There are also double eaves *futanoki “ñŒ¬, and closely spaced rafters *shigedaruki ”ɐ‚–Ø. The roof is covered with cypress bark *hiwadabuki •O”畘. The gable pediments have diagonal braces *sasu LŽñ. A step canopy *kouhai Œü”q, is built over the steps at the center front. A residential feeling is created by both panelled doors, and latticed doors with plank backing that open into two horizontal sections *shitomido ŽÁŒË. The building also has chamfered posts except for the sanctuary pillars and the flowing eaves extending over the simple, open veranda. Residential-like Buddhist halls are not all dedicated to the fudoudou. Other examples are the *Daishidou ‘åŽt“° at Kyouougokokuji ‹³‰¤Œì‘Ž› (1380) and Jingoji _ŒìŽ› *Nouryoubou ”[—Á–[ (Momoyama period), both in Kyoto.
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