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chigi@ç–Ø
CATEGORY:@architecture / shrines, folk dwellings
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Also written ’Á–Ø, ’m–Ø, ’m‹^. Also higi •X–Ø.

1@Forked finials, which are found on most Shinto shrines. According to an early document, the TAISHINPOU ENRYAKU GISHIKICHOU ‘¾_•ó‰„—ï‹VŽ®’  (804), the dimension of a forked finial including the bargeboard *hafu ”j•—, extended 28 shaku ŽÚ (8.5m ) 8 sun ¡ (24.2cm) and were 4 sun (12.1cm) thick. The forked finials on buildings in the *shinmei-zukuri _–¾‘¢, are thought to retain the original style. At Ise Jinguu ˆÉ¨_‹{, the forked finials of buildings in both the Inner and Outer sanctuaries, Naikuu “à‹{ and Gekuu ŠO‹{, are examples of the extended bargeboard type, and are structural as well as decorative. The chigi at both shrines have two openings for wind passage kazaana •—ŒŠ, but their ends are cut differently. The chigi on the Naikuu buildings are cut horizontally. There are two wind holes plus cuts at the top ends which appear as open-ended slots. These symbolize a female deity who, in this case, is the Sun Goddess, Amaterasu Oomikami “VÆ‘å_. In contrast, the ends of those on buildings in the Gekuu are cut vertically symbolizing the male deity, Toyouke Oomikami –LŽó‘å_. Metal covers which are both protective and decorative are applied to all the wind holes and the ends of the forked finials on all buildings in the Naikuu and Gekuu. Other examples include: Nishina Shinmeiguu *Honden m‰È_–¾‹{–{“a, in Nagano prefecture Although forked finials have become a symbol denoting a Shinto shrine, not all shrines are adorned with them. They are found principally on buildings in the shinmei style, *kasuga-zukuri t“ú‘¢, and *taisha-zukuri ‘åŽÐ‘¢. Exceptions include: the chigi on the *chidori hafu ç’¹”j•— of Kibitsu Jinja Honden ‹g”õ’Ð_ŽÐ–{“a in Okayama prefecture; the *Hakkaku endou ”ªŠp‰~“° at Yoshida Jinja ‹g“c_ŽÐ in Kyoto; and the sangensha ŽOŠÔŽÐ (*sanja-zukuri ŽOŽÐ‘¢) at Kamitani Jinja Honden _’J_ŽÐ–{“a in Kagawa prefecture.

Ise Jinguu Naikuu Shouden ˆÉ¨_‹{“à‹{³“a (Mie)
Ise Jinguu Naikuu Shouden ˆÉ¨_‹{“à‹{³“a (Mie)

2@Forked finials that formed an X-shape eventually came into use as decorative and symbolic members. They were separately made timbers that crossed, and not extensions of the bargeboard. They are called okichigi ’uç–Ø, and are set on the ridge of buildings constructed especially in taisha and kasuga styles. The angles formed by the crossed timbers may differ. For example, at Izumo Taisha Honden o‰_‘åŽÐ–{“a, the timbers are crossed at right angle. The upper half of each has two wind holes, and all ends are cut vertically. The crossed timbers of the chigi on buildings of other shrines in the taisha style may have a sharp incline, as at Sumiyoshi Taisha Z‹g‘åŽÐ in Osaka. The parts extending upward are sometimes longer than the lower ones. Wind holes may also be omitted. Shrine buildings in the kasuga style have forked finials which are strongly curved. The intersection of the timbers occurs toward the lower third of the entire length. The upper ends are cut diagonally and the lower ends are bevelled on the right and left sides. Protective metal covers may be added to the tips, and rather long,

Izumo Taisha Honden o‰_‘åŽÐ–{“a (Shimane)
Izumo Taisha Honden o‰_‘åŽÐ–{“a (Shimane)

3@Some scholars maintain that the extended rafter or bargeboard type of forked finial was to be found on dwellings and storehouses of powerful families in the pre-Buddhist periods from the 1c to mid-6c. Support for this derives from such evidence as the depiction of a raised floor structure, takayuka kaoku ‚°‰Æ‰®, on a bronze bell excavated in Kagawa prefecture. The reconstructions of a pit dwelling *tateana juukyo ’GŒŠZ‹, and raised floor storehouse takayuka souko ‚°‘qŒÉ, at Toro Iseki “o˜CˆâÕ in Shizuoka prefecture, also support the supposition of the use of chigi on such ancient structures. In many areas, rural or vernacular houses *minka –¯‰Æ, which have thatched roofs *kayabuki yane ‰è•˜‰®ª, have chigi like timbers on the roofs, These are composed of two timbers: a female member *megi —–Ø, with an opening through which a male member ogi ’j–Ø, passes. Thus, the two parts are held in place. From the 17c through the 19c, the legal code prescribed according to rank the number of chigi which could be placed on a dwelling's roof. The higher the rank, the greater the number of chigi permitted. The forked finials are known by different names according to the area in which they are used. In Kyoto, Nara and Hiroshima prefectures, they are called uma ”n; in parts of Toyama, Osaka, Kouchi,Tokushima and Miyazaki prefectures, they are called umanori ”næ; in some areas of Yamagata, Miyagi, Yamanashi, Hiroshima and Kouchi prefectures, they are called kurakake ˆÆŠ|.
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