yamato hyougu 大和表具
KEY WORD : art history / paintings
The most commonly used style of mounting hanging scrolls *kakemono 掛物 in Japan and a major class of mounting styles. The other major mounting style is called *bunjin hyougu 文人表具.
The yamato hyougu became well known in the Muromachi period as a result of influence from Sung and Yuan dynasties Chinese painting. Originally, this mounting was used for Shinto images, titles of deities shingou 神号 and imperial letters. The mode of mounting resembled the douhoe 幢ほえ or semi-formal mounting. The yamato hyougu is still used for such things as imperial letters, old paintings and pictures. The essential elements of a yamato hyougu are the honshi 本紙 (area of the painting or calligraphy itself), *ichimonji 一文字, *chuuberi 中縁, *jouge 上下, and ichimonji fuutai 一文字風帯 (see *fuutai 風帯). Because the ichimonji, chuuberi and jouge are done in materials of three different qualities -- with the ichimonji receiving the best, the chuuberi the second best and the jouge the third best -- the mounting is also called sandan hyougu 三段表具.
Originally, the ichimonji was done in yamato nishiki 大和錦 (brocade) and the jouge and chuuberi were of very fine crepe paper. The fuutai were made with something that had linen in it.
This mounting also stands in contrast to the Chinese-style *fukurohyougu 袋表具 and the formal *honzon hyougu 本尊表具 which is used for Buddhist paintings. The yamato hyougu mounting has three modes shin 真 (hyouhoe ひょうほえ; now hyouho 表補) or formal mode, gyou 行 (douhoe 幢ほえ; now douho 幢補) or semi-formal mode, and sou 草 (rinhoe 輪ほえ; now rinpo 輪補) or informal mode, each of which is further subdivided. The hyouhoe and douhoe modes can be each be mounted in shin, gyou or sou sub-styles, whereas the rinhoe mode normally only contains the sub-styles of gyou and sou. There are many gyou of gyou (semi-formal/semi-formal) style mounted works used today.


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