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ushibari@‹—À
KEY WORD :@architecture / general terms,@folk dwellings
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1@A particularly large beam that runs in a longitudinal direction, ketayuki houkou Œ…s•ûŒü (see *ketayuki Œ…s), parallel to the ridge of the roof *munagi “–Ø, close to the center of a building's cross-section. Usually it is directly supported by posts (often including a substantial *daikokubashira ‘单’Œ), and is used in structures with a cross section too wide for the main frame *jouya ã‰®, *moya •ê‰® to be conveniently spanned by a single member. It has a seating for the principal transverse beams *jouyabari ã‰®—À or *koyabari ¬‰®—À at center span, which allows the beam to be divided into two sections while at the same time keeping the number of posts at the center of the building to a minimum. It is found in storehouses *dozou “y‘ , theaters shibaigoya ŽÅ‹¬‰®, largescale vernacular houses *minka –¯‰Æ and related structures. In minka, an ushibari often spans from the daikokubashira across the earthfloored area *doma “yŠÔ at the lower end *shimote ‰ºŽè of the house. In minka in Niigata prefecture, sacks of rice grain are stored suspended from the ushibari. Also referred to as ushi ‹, ushibiki ‹ˆø, ushibikibari ‹ˆø—À, nakabiki ’†ˆø, nakabikibari ’†ˆø—À, hikibari ˆø—À, and *shikibari •~—À.

2@A beam that runs parallel to the ridge purlin at center span to provide longitudinal stability to the structural frame in minka with filed roof in Kagawa, Ehime Tokushima prefectures. It is usually laid on top of the main transverse beams. Also called ushi ‹, ushiki ‹–Ø, nakabiki ’†ˆø.

3@A plate laid upon the main transverse beams at center span, running parallel to the ridge of the roof in thatched minka in parts of Kagoshima prefecture. It is a large log, unwrought but stripped of bark, and may be up to 7m long and 30cm in diameter. It provides a footing for a row of munatsuka “‘© or *sasuzuka ³Žñ‘© (vertical struts propping the *sasu ³Žñ) at their point of intersection below the ridge. Also called ushimaru ‹ŠÛ. See *jimune ’n“, *tsukabumi ‘©“¥.
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