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tengai@“VŠW
KEY WORD :@1 art history /sculptures; 2 architecture / decorations
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1@Also sangai ŽPŠW, hougai •óŠW, kagai ‰ØŠW, kengai ŒœŠW. Sk; chatra. A canopy hung from the ceiling above a Buddhist statue. Said to be derived from parasols used by Indian nobility. In Japan canopies were made of metal or wood; in square, hexagonal, octagonal or circular shapes. Often ornamental objects such as the jeweled net *ramou —…–Ô were hung from the canopy. Until the Fujiwara period many tengai were decorated with an arabesque flower pattern *housouge •ó‘Š‰Ø in openwork *sukashibori “§’¤ or relief carving *ukibori •‚’¤. From the 12c cloud patterns were common, and in the transitional period the two designs were sometimes combined in the same work. Outstanding examples of tengai include the Asuka period painted wooden canopy in Houryuuji *Kondou –@—²Ž›‹à“°, Nara, the early Heian period wooden canopy over the *Fudou Myouou •s“®–¾‰¤ in Touji “ŒŽ›, Kyoto, shaped like a lotus flower, with eight heavenly beings *hiten ”ò“V painted in the centre; and the 11c canopy over the Amida Nyoraizou ˆ¢–í‘É”@—ˆ‘œ in Byoudouin *Hououdou •½“™‰@–P™€“° (1053), kyoto, which consists of a round, openwork, housouge decorative panel inside a box-shaped outer structure (inlaid lacquer).

2@A baldachin. A canopy made of painted or gilded wood and hung above Buddhist altars and/or over Buddhist statues. Those placed over abbots' seats are called raiban —ç”Õ or jintengai l“VŠW. Originally the canopies were made of silk and were intended to resemble a long-handled Indian umbrella, kinugasa Œ¦Š}. The canopies were square, circular, six or eight sided. Trinkets *youraku àûàâ and/or streams were hung along the bottom edges.@
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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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