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ryoushi soushoku@—¿Ž†‘•ü
CATEGORY:@art history / paintings
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The decoration of paper used for calligraphy and painting *ryoushi —¿Ž†. Paper dyeing is a type of decoration which is applied during the process of paper making. Many types of plant dyes, such as sappanwood *suou ‘h–F and indigo *ai —•, are used. The dye is applied with a brush, hikizome ˆøõ, or raw paper is dipped into the dye tsukezome ’Аõ. Sometimes the fibers are dyed before the paper is made, sen'izome ‘@ˆÛõ. This includes two special techniques of paper decoration: *uchigumori ‘Å“Ü, where indigo dyed fibers are dipped so that the top and bottom of a sheet from a cloud pattern; and tobikumo ”ò‰_, where paperfiber dyed in blue and purple are mixed so that small cloud patterns appear in a sheet. Mizutamagami …‹ÊŽ† is decorated by applying a fine layer of colored paper (often blue) to a white sheet. Drops of water splashed onto the blue paper make holes in the upper sheet to reveal the white base. Chiriirigami o“üŽ† deliberately leaves darker coarse fiber on the paper surface for decorative effect. Other elements such as buckwheat, rushes, moss or gold and silver dust also can be added. Decoration applied after paper is made includes: @
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*Karakami “‚Ž†, a technique in which patterns carved on a wood-block are printed with mica, kira ‰_•ê on paper undercoated *gubiki ‹ïˆø‚« with the white pigments *gofun ŒÓ•². Variations @of karakami include *rousen ˜Xâ³ (wax rubbed paper) and later, karazuri ‹ó  (goffer). @
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Gold and Silver decoration. Gold and silver leaves *haku ”“ cut into small geometric shapes *kirihaku Ø”“, thin strips *noge –ì–Ñ, or fine powder *sunago »Žq, are scattered and pasted on @paper. @
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*Suminagashi –n—¬‚µ, a technique of paper decoration taken from the pattern of ink floating on water. @
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Drawings in gold and silver paint *kingindei-e ‹à‹â“DŠG or various other pigments. Popular patterns include flowers, birds, butterflies and vegetation. When designs are large and @complicated (close to a painting), they are called *shita-e ‰ºŠG (underdrawing). *Ashide ˆ¯Žè is one of the most sophisticated designs used for decorating paper. @
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Paper joining *tsugigami ŒpŽ†. Decorative paper is made by joining various sheets of paper in different colors and patterns.
Since ancient times various materials were applied to the surface of paper both to preserve and to create a better effect for calligraphy and painting. For example, paper sometimes was hammered flat uchigami ‘ÅŽ†, polished with precious stones or ivory, keishi àðŽ† or dyed brown with Amur cork (Phelodendron amurense, Jp: *kihada ‰©ŸA) for protection against insects. Gradually from this there developed various types of paper decoration such as printing patterns and paper dyeing. The earliest examples of decorated ryoushi in Japan can be seen at the *Shousouin ³‘q‰@ (Nara) and date back to the 8c . The technique of paper decoration reached its peak during the mid-Heian period (10-11c), when the use of decorated papers for poetry and letters was extremely popular among the courtiers and the ladies serving at the court. Glazed *ganpishi Šå”玆 and *choshi ž¸Ž† were most often used. Paper decoration after the Heian period is not as sophisticated as in this golden age. Notable examples are found, however, in the works of Honnami Kouetsu –{ˆ¢–íŒõ‰x (1558-1637) and Soutatsu @’B (see *Rinpa —Ô”h) during the Momoyama period.
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NOTES
tsukezome ’Аõ also Zõ / sen'i-zome ‘@ˆÛõ also sukizome —õ@

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