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haku@”“
KEY WORD :@art history / paintings
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Lit. foil or leaf. Gold, silver, copper, tin or brass pounded into a thin flat sheet and used for the decoration of art works and craft objects. Gold kinpaku ‹à”“ and silver ginpaku ‹â”“ were most frequently used. A thin block of metal is wrapped in leather or *washi ˜aŽ† (Japanese paper) and pounded with a wooden or bamboo mallet until it is about 1/10,000 of 1mm in thickness (the Heian/Kamakura examples are thicker). The sheets are then cut into approximately 10cm-squares. Most metal foils are made in Kyoto and Kanazawa ‹à‘ò. The technique of affixing gold foil to the surface of an object with lacquer or glue *nikawa äP is called kinpakuoshi ‹à”“‰Ÿ. The earliest known example of haku in Japan is found on the wall painting of Takamatsuzuka ‚¼’Ë tomb (late 7c-early 8c). During the Nara and Heian periods, gold and silver foil were frequently used as decoration on Buddhist paintings and sculptures, as well as on writing paper. In a technique called *shippaku Ž½”“ (gold/silver foil) was pressed on top of lacquer applied to wood or to dry lacquer *kanshitsu Š£Ž½ sculpture. Foil cut into small pieces was used to make exquisite designs on the garments of Buddhist deities *kirikane Ø‹à and also sprinkled over the surface of writing papers for decoration *kirihaku Ø”“. Sometimes foil was applied to the back of a painting to produce a soft, lustrous sheen on the metal ornaments held by Buddhist deities *urahaku — ”“. From the Muromachi period, gold foil, which was favoured by the shoguns, was amply used for extravagant architectural decoration, such as Ashikaga Yoshimitsu's ‘«—˜‹`–ž (1358-1408) Rokuonji Kinkaku Ž­‰‘Ž›‹àŠt i1397) and Toyotomi Hideyoshi's –LbG‹g (1536-98) Kin no chashitsu ‹à‚Ì’ƒŽº. Gold foil also was used extensively for interior decoration, and the gold background *kinji ‹à’n of paintings on screens and sliding doors *kinpeki shouhekiga ‹à•Éá•Ç‰æ. Gold/silver foil is also frequently used to decorate craft objects. It is affixed to lacquerware haku-e ”“ŠG and pressed onto textiles. Generally gold and silver foil is applied inkin ˆó‹à with glue or lacquer, however, during the Momoyama period, a variation of this technique using rice paste as a bonding agent became popular (*surihaku  ”“; with embroidery, it is called nuihaku J”“).
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NOTES
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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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