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ryoushi@—¿Ž†
KEY WORD :@art history / paintings
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Paper used for writing and painting; for documents, classical books, Buddhist sutras etc. Ryoushi used in Japan includes *mashi –ƒŽ†, *choshi ž¸Ž†, *ganpishi Šå”玆, and *mitsumatagami ŽOž“Ž†. Mashi, is made from yellow or white hemp and was widely used as the paper on which to copy sutras, particularly in the Nara and early Heian periods. Choshi, which is made from the abundant mulberry tree that grows in all regions of Japan and produces tough paper fibers, is the predominant paper in use since ancient times. It includes several varieties: *housho •ò‘, *minogami ”ü”ZŽ†, and *danshi ’hŽ†. Ganpishi (also known as *torinokogami ’¹‚ÌŽqŽ† or chicken paper, because of its yellow color), is a very fine quality paper with a smooth, glossy surface made from plant fibers (Diplomorpha sikokiana), and often used for book production since ancient times. From the late Muromachi period onwards it was usually used for documents. Thick varieties *atsuyou Œú—l, and thin varieties *usuyou ”–—l also were produced. Mitsumatagami, made from mitsumata ŽOž“ plant fibers (Edgeworthia papyrifera) was developed in the mid-Edo period, but was generally not used for books or documents.
A full single rectangular sheet *zenshi ‘SŽ† of ryoushi, when used horizontally, is known as tategami ’GŽ† (also written —§Ž†). When this is folded in half horizontally it is called origami ÜŽ†. When it is folded in half vertically it is called tateorigami ’GÜŽ†. A sheet which is folded both horizontally and vertically and then cut into smaller pieces is called kirikami ØŽ†. When a piece of writing cannot be completed on a single sheet, two or three sheets are glued together and this format is known as tsuzukigami ‘±Ž†. Ryoushi has a wide variety of uses including: letters, cards, envelopes, books *sassubon ûŽq–{ and scrolls *kansubon ŠªŽq–{. A wide variety of decoration can also be applied.
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REFERENCES:
*ryoushi soushoku —¿Ž†‘•ü, *washi ˜aŽ†
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NOTES
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