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kabuki-e@̕G
KEY WORD :@art history / paintings
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Also shibai-e ŋG and geki-e . Includes kabuki gekijou-zu ̕ꌀ} and *yakusha-e ҊG. Paintings or prints related to the *kabuki ̕ theater. When kabuki was in its formative stages in the early 17c most of the pictorial representations were scenes of daily life which included depictions of kabuki performances, kabuki fuuzoku-zu ̕ꕗ}. Among the earliest kabuki prints are those by Hishikawa Moronobu Ht (c.1618-94) published between 1672-89. Actor prints yakusha-e focus on close-ups of the actors and contributed to the rapid development of more general kabuki-e by Torii Kiyonobu M (1664-1729) and Kiyomasu { (fl.c.1696-1716). In the early 18c, Okumura Masanobu M (1686-1764), Nishimura Shigenaga d (1697?-1756) and Toshinobu M (fl.c. 1717-50) inherited this print tradition and in the mid-century Torii Kiyomitsu (1735-85) produced many kabuki-e. Between 1736-44, perspective prints *uki-e G came into vogue and the technique was used to focus on the kabuki stage itself butai-zu }. Along with actor prints, prints of the kabuki stage became one of the two most popular subjects. Around 1764-72, actor-likeness portraits yakusha nigao-e ҎG were popularized by Ippitsusai Bunchou M֕ (fl.c.1765-92), significantly changing the current style of actor prints. Between 1781-1801, kabuki-e changed again with Katsukawa Shunshou t (1726-93) and others depicting the everyday lives of actors. Torii Kiyonaga (1752-1815) produced degatari-zu o} prints which included dancers and the reciter. Katsukawa Shunkou tD (1743-1812) popularized bust portraits *ookubi-e G of kabuki actors. Prints by Toushuusai Sharaku F֎ʊy (fl. 1794-95), with their wittily exaggerated facial features, represent the high-point of this genre. Utagawa Toyokuni ̐L (1769-1825) dominated the scene in the early 19c with his prints of actors both in stage roles and in private life. Kunisada (1786-1864) was the next dominant artist of actor prints, but by the mid-19c the style had hardened into a fixed pattern. The last notable designer of actor prints was Kunichika (1835-1900). In the Kyoto-Osaka area, there was a lull in kabuki-related print production after the early genre paintings of the 17c, but in the late 18c, influenced by the actor-likeness portraits that were popular in Edo, books of actor prints *yakusha ehon ҊG{ were published in Osaka. This led to a revival of their popularity, spearheaded by Ryuukousai Jokei ֔@\ (fl.1772-1816) and Shoukousai Hanbee D֔q (fl.1795-1809). In the early 19c, Shunkousai Hokushuu tD֖kF (fl.c.1808-32) and Asayama Ashikuni R (c.1775/9-1818), followed by Shunkousai Hokuei t]֖kp (fl.1829-37) and Yamaguchi Shigeharu Rdt (1803-53) were the last great producers of actor prints in Osaka. After Tenpou V era (1830-44), actor prints were mass produced with few stylistic changes. Kabuki prints produced after the 17c can be divided into two categories: actor prints; and theater prints. Actor prints can be further divided into two categories: likeness portraits and prints of actors before likeness portraits. Likeness portraits include the following categories: 1) bust portraits ookubi-e; 2) full-length portraits zenshin-zu Sg}; 3) scenes inside dressing rooms; 4) parody pictures *mitate-e G; 5) death portraits *shini-e G. Theater prints may be sub-divided into: 1) stage prints butai-zu; 2) genre paintings in dressing rooms gakuya fuuzoku-zu y}; 3) prints of the entertainment districts. Prints of reciters degatari-zu fall into both categories.
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