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Juntei@yãñ
KEY WORD :@art history / iconography
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Sk: Cundi. Also Juntei Butsumo yãñ•§•ê, Shichigutei Butsumo Žµ‹äãñ•§•ê, or Butsumo Juntei •§•êyãñ. Juntei means pure, and Butsumo means the mother of the myriad buddhas and bodhisattvas. Juntei is a deity propitiated for wisdom, conjugal harmony, obtaining a child, long life, and rain. The single most famous story is that of Shoubou's ¹•ó (the founder of the Daigoji ‘çŒíŽ› in Kyoto; 832-909) successful propitiation of Juntei for the birth of two emperors. The frequent association of the deity with prayers for conjugal harmony and children suggests a feminine nature, as does the name butsumo. Juntei is often said to be female, but Japanese sculptures and paintings do not show a woman. In the Ono ¬–ì tradition of Shingon ^Œ¾ Esoteric Buddhism mikkyou –§‹³ associated with Daigoji, Juntei is considered a bodhisattva *bosatsu •ìŽF, a form of *Kannon ŠÏ‰¹, and one of the Six Kannon *Roku Kannon ˜ZŠÏ‰¹. In the Hirosawa L‘ò tradition of the Shingon sect and in Tendai “V‘ä Buddhism, however, Juntei is considered a Buddha. The latter view can be supported by the following facts: Juntei's headdress does not necessarily hold a small figure of *Amida ˆ¢–í‘É; Juntei does not appear in the Kannon section of the Matrix mandala *Taizoukai mandara ‘Ù‘ ŠE™Ö䶗…, but in the Henchi-in •Ò’m‰@ section connected with wisdom; and Juntei is not listed as a name of Kannon in texts. Four-and six-armed images of Juntei dating from the 7-8c are extant in Ellora caves in India and in Borobudor in central Java, Indonesia (8-9c). No Chinese examples are known, but the iconography is mentioned in the texts, such as SHICHIGUTEI BUTSUMO JUNTEI DAIMYOU DARANIKYOU Žµ‹äãñ•§•ê€’ñ‘å–¾‘É—…“òŒo translated by Vajrabodhi (Ch: Jingangzhi, Jp: Kongouchi ‹à„’q, 671-741) and SHICHIGUTEI BUTSUMO SHOSETSU JUNTEI DARANIKYOU Žµ‹äãñ•§•êŠàyãñ‘É—…“òŒo translated by Amoghavajra (Ch: Bukong, Jp: Fukuu •s‹ó, 705-74). These texts describe Juntei as yellow in color and with three eyes and eighteen arms, and this is how Juntei appears in the Taizoukai mandara. However, eight-armed forms appear in some of the most important compilations of Buddhist iconography in Japan including *KAKUZENSHOU Šo‘Tçâ (13c) and extant examples of Juntei may have between two and 84 arms. Thus Juntei can be difficult to distinguish from *Senju Kannon çŽèŠÏ‰¹ or *Fukuukenjaku Kannon •s‹ó㮍õŠÏ‰¹. Attributes of extant examples also vary in spite of the fact that in the original Chinese texts they are almost the same. Juntei may be shown with two dragon kings rising from the sea below the lotus throne. Since Juntei appears in the Henchi-in Section of the Taizoukai mandar along with Butsugen Butsumo •§Šá•§•ê, and since "butsumo" is an epithet of Prajnaparamita *Hannya bosatsu ”ÊŽá•ìŽF, some connection with this deity and with the Prajnaparamita texts seems likely. It is often said that Juntei had a non-Buddhist origin and is related to Hindu deities.
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