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Fukuukenjaku Kannon@•s‹ó㮍õŠÏ‰¹
KEY WORD :@art history / iconography
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Also known as Fukuukensaku Kannon. His name "non-empty noose" is pronounced differently in Shingon ^Œ¾ (Fukuukenjaku) and Tendai “V‘ä (Fukuukensaku) contexts. He is counted as one of the Six Kannon *Roku Kannon ˜ZŠÏ‰¹, in Tendai. An early esoteric Buddhist deity, images of him exist in India, though no earlier than the 9c. The relevant sutras were translated into Chinese in the Sui and Tang dynasties, though a mid-Tang painting in Dunhuang (Jp: Tonkou “ÖàŠ) is the earliest extant Chinese example. In Southeast Asia bronze examples date from the 8c, and in Japan images also begin to appear in the Nara period. He appears in a number of paintings as well, and in the Kannon Section of the Womb World Mandala *Taizoukai mandara ‘Ù‘ ŠE™Ö䶗…, where he is shown seated with three faces and four arms. Various forms of Fukuukenjaku Kannon exist, with different numbers of faces and arms, some of these forms difficult to identify. The noose and a deer/antelope skin kesa ŒU¾ (Buddhist surplice) thrown over his shoulder are distinguishing attributes, but the noose (sometimes a real rope) may be missing and so may the deer skin. Explanations of the noose differ, too. It is considered an instrument with which Fukuukenjaku saves sentient beings, just as birds and game are caught. The noose binds attachment. A large number of texts are concerned with Fukuukenjaku Kannon. In the FUKUUKENJAKU SHINPEN SHINGONKYOU •s‹ó㮍õ_•Ï^Œ¾Œo, Fukuukenjaku Kannon is likened to *Daijizaiten ‘厩Ý“V, one of the names of the Hindu deity Siva. Fukuukenjaku has esoteric connections with *Jizou ’n‘ , *Fudou Myouou •s“®–¾‰¤ and *Dainichi ‘å“ú. Famous examples include the huge image (362cm tall) at *Hokkedou –@‰Ø“° (also known as Sangatsudou ŽOŒŽ“°, made c.747) in Toudaiji “Œ‘厛, Nara, and that in the Nan-endou “ì‰~“° of Koufukuji ‹»•ŸŽ›, Nara, dated 1189 (original destroyed). Few images of Fukuukenjaku were made after the Nara period. Although the clear reason is unknown, it may be due to the formal introduction of esoteric practice in the early 9c. It has been also suggested that it is due to his importance to the Fujiwara “¡Œ´ family, for whom he was a protective (particularly deity in the Nan-endou of Koufukuji, the Fujiwara family temple) was a protective deity, identified as the *honjibutsu –{’n•§ of their ujigami Ž_ (family *kami _), Kasuga Daimyoujin t“ú‘å–¾_.
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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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