@
Senju Kannon@ηŽθŠΟ‰Ή
CATEGORY:@ art history / iconography
@
Sk:Sahasrabhuja-arya-avalokites 'vara. Thousand-armed Kannon or *Kannon ŠΟ‰Ή with a thousand arms. Also called Senbi kannon ηδ]ŠΟ‰Ή or Daihi Kannon ‘ε”ίŠΟ‰Ή. This form of Kannon theoretically has 1000 hands and 1000 eyes. Thus a longer version of the name is Senju-sengen Kanjizai Bosatsu ηŽθηŠαŠΟŽ©έ•μŽF or, more commonly, Senju-sengen Kannon ηŽθηŠαŠΟ‰Ή. The form emphasizes the compassion that sees suffering (with 1000 eyes) and acts to relieve it (with 1000 hands). It is assumed that this form originated in India in the 7c, but no examples remain. Examples do remain from around the 10c in China, and Senju was one of the early forms of Kannon revered in Japan. As one of the Six Kannon *Roku Kannon ˜ZŠΟ‰Ή that save sufferers in the Six Realms rokudou ˜Z“Ή, Senju saves hungry ghosts gaki ‰μ‹S. Senju Kannon appears in the Kokuuzouin ‹•‹σ‘ ‰@ of the *Taizoukai mandara ‘Ω‘ ŠE™ΦδΆ—…, with 27 faces and 42 main arms, while innumerable small arms fan out behind. Since it is difficult to portray one thousand arms, images usually show Senju with two principle arms in gasshou-in ‡Άˆσ (Sk: anjali mudra) in front of his chest and 40 arms, holding attributes and forming mudra, on the sides (altogether 42 arms, or shijunihi Žl\“ρδ]). This number can be justified because each hand saves the beings of 25 worlds, and 40 times the 25 equals 1000. Since in each hand there is one eye, there are 1000 eyes. While most images, particularly sculptures, have 42 arms or fewer, there are several early images such as those of Toushoudaiji “‚΅’ηŽ› in Nara and Fujiidera Š‹ˆδŽ› in Osaka, which try to show all 1000 hands. The number of faces also is usually 11, but 27 and, conversely, just one (with a third eye) are also possible. Senju Kannon is a deity to whom to pray for relief of eye problems and blindness. It may have been partly for this reason that Ganjin ŠΣ^ (688-763), the founder of the Ritsu —₯ sect in Japan who lost his sight during troubled voyages from China, enshrined an image of Senju Kannon at his temple, Toushoudaiji. However, it should also be noted that Senju is one of the forms of Kannon that are worshipped as principal devotional images, and Ganjin was in the equivalent position at Toushoudaiji. In Sanjuusangendou ŽO\ŽOŠΤ“° (also called Rengeouin ˜@‰Ψ‰€‰@) because Senju is the lord of the renge-in ˜@‰Ψˆσ of the Taizoukai mandara, there are 1000 Senju Kannon sculptures accompanied by a group of twenty-eight attendants *nijuuhachi bushuu “ρ\”ͺ•”O. Senju may also be attended by just Kudokuten Œχ“Ώ“V (also known as *Kichijouten ‹gΛ“V) and *Basusen ”k–χε, both of whom accompany him in the Taizoukai mandara.
@
@

@
REFERENCES:
@
EXTERNAL LINKS: 
@@
NOTES
@

(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
ŒfΪ‚ΜƒeƒLƒXƒgEŽΚ^EƒCƒ‰ƒXƒg‚ȂǁA‘S‚Δ‚ΜƒRƒ“ƒeƒ“ƒc‚Μ–³’f•‘»E“]Ϊ‚π‹Φ‚Ά‚ά‚·B
@