|KEY WORD : art history / paintings|
|Lit. Daoist Buddhist paintings. A genre of painting on Daoist (Taoist; Jp; Doukyou 道教) and Buddhist (shaku 釈 from *Shaka 釈迦) themes which came to Japan from China and is characterized by the use of simple brush strokes in black ink *sumi 墨 with little or no color . If figures are included in the paintings, as in most examples, they are specifically called doushaku jinbutsuga 道釈人物画. These works were not of a purely religious nature intended as objects of worship, but were appreciated for the aesthetic qualities of the painting itself. Popular subjects of doushakuga include: Buddhist saints such as *Daruma 達磨; *Kannon 観音, particularly the white-robed Kannon *Byakue Kannon 白衣観音; *Hotei 布袋; *rakan 羅漢, *Kanzan Jittoku 寒山拾得 and Daoist immortals *Gama Tekkai 蝦蟇鉄拐, *Ryo Douhin 呂洞賓, *Kin Kou sennin 琴高仙人, and *Chou Karou 張果老. Doushakuga imported from China, especially of the Song and Yuan dynasties (see *sougenga 宋元画), were recorded in catalogues of art treasures compiled in the Muromachi period, and they served as an influence on Japanese painting. Doushakuga were started by Zen 禅 (Ch: Ch'an) priests and those who associated with them. Minchou 明兆 (1352-1431), a priest-painter of Toufukuji 東福寺 (Kyoto), was the first Japanese artist associated with this genre. Two Zen priest-painters who are considered to be Minchou's followers, Sekkyakushi 赤脚子 (fl. early 15c) and Reisai 霊彩 (fl.1430-50), also painted in their teacher's style. Doushakuga were often painted in black sumi ink without or with little color. Another priest-painter Kaou 可翁 (fl. first half 14c) who favored Buddhist subjects is thought to have been a pioneer of Japanese ink painting *suibokuga 水墨画. Other priest painters of doushakuga in ink were Mokuan 黙庵 (fl.1323-45), Tesshuu Tokusai 鉄州徳済 (?-1366) and Bonpou 梵芳 (ca.1348-1420). Doushakuga was a popular genre of ink painting even after the Muromachi period, and examples were produced by painters of various schools including *Kanouha 狩野派 and *Rinpa 琳派, *ukiyo-e 浮世絵 painters parodied Daoist and Buddhist figures.|
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