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Kanzan Jittoku@RE
KEY WORD :@art history / paintings
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Ch: Hanshan Shide. Semi-legendary Tang dynasty, Zen T (Ch: Chan) eccentrics who were frequently depicted in Chinese and Japanese ink painting. Kanzan R (Ch: Hanshan; lit. cold mountain) is thought to have lived as a poet-recluse near Mt. Tiantai (Jp:Tendai V) in Zhejiang ]. Jittoku E (Ch: Shide; lit. foundling) was so named because he was found by the Zen master *Bukan L (Ch: Fenggan) and raised in the Tiantai temple Guoqingsi , where he worked in the kitchen and gave leftover food to his friend Kanzan. The little that is known of their biographies is provided in the preface to a collection of Kanzan's poetry, Cold Mountain KANZANSHI SHISHUU RqW (Ch: Hanshanzishiji ; translated into English by Burton Watson) and the KEITOKU DENTOUROKU i`^ (Ch: Jingde Chuancenglu) compiled in 1004. Kanzan Jittoku were regarded later as incarnations of the bodhisattvas *Monju (Sk: Manjusri and *Fugen (Sk: Samantabhadra), respectively. They are usually depicted with ragged clothing, long, tangled hair, and grimacing or laughing wildly. Kanzan frequently holds a scroll, presumably of his poetry although several painting inscriptions claim it is devoid of writing, while Jittoku holds a broom, indicating his position as a scullion. Along with Bukan and his pet tiger, they make up the *shisui l (four sleepers). Kanzan Jittoku form one of the most enduring subjects in Japanese ink painting. Notable Chinese examples include those by Liang Kai (Jp: Ryou Kai ; early 13c; MOA Museum), and Yintuoluo (Jp: Indara ɗ; late 14c; Tokyo National Museum). Well-known Japanese works include paintings by Kaou ‰ (mid-14c; several versions including one in the Freer Gallery of Art), by Shoukei (late 15c; Tokugawa Art Museum), Reisai (mid-15c; Burke collection, New York), Kaihou Yuushou CkF (1533-1615; Myoushinji S, Kyoto), and painters of the Kanou school *Kanouha h. In the Edo period they were parodied as *mitate-e G in *ukiyo-e G.
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